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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

meteopathy

meteopathy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
754 words

...air movement, and light produced by a rise or fall of the barometer can all be picked up, consciously or unconsciously, by traditional sense organs. The eye , acting as a light meter, by way of the small number of optic nerve fibres that run directly to the hypothalamus , can monitor the drop in light intensity as cloud cover builds up. The skin , with its hair follicles and many free nerve endings, might be responsible for ‘Pos-Ion’ sensitivity and for sensing the excess of negative charge associated with good weather. Neural centres for integrating such...

anaesthesia, general

anaesthesia, general   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,944 words
Illustration(s):
1

...anaesthesia, have become available in disposable versions, minimizing the risk of infection being transferred from one patient to another. Another major development, commencing in the 1970s, has been the increasing availability of apparatus which allows the anaesthetist to monitor routinely not only the patient's pulse rate, blood pressure, and electrocardiogram, but also such physiological parameters as the oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood. This, together with the measurement of blood loss during operations, provides an early warning of...

microscopy

microscopy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,608 words

...point by point, by moving a focused incident beam of illumination or a physical scanning probe line by line along a regular roster through or across the surface of the specimen. In this way, the resulting image is built up point by point, usually electronically on a video monitor or similar display device. Microscopes in this class include the scanning electron microscope, the acoustic microscope, the confocal light microscope, and a wide variety of scanning probe microscopes, including the scanning tunnelling microscope and the atomic force microscope,...

assisted reproduction

assisted reproduction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,831 words

...and stored the donors of the gametes now have to record what should happen in such eventualities. Ovulation induction is a method of assistance for women who are not producing eggs. Drugs (gonadotropins) which stimulate the ovary to produce eggs are used. The dose is care-fully monitored by ultrasound scanning of the ovary and the measurement of hormones in the blood. There are many ethical dilemmas arising out of assisted reproductive methods and the developments therefrom, many of which were not foreseen. Society has to consider which advances are acceptable...

Small Cats

Small Cats   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
5,428 words
Illustration(s):
11

...images of such elusive species as golden cats and leopard cats in Asia, Iberian lynx in Spain, and kodkod, ocelot, and margay in Central and South America. Remote radio tracking of animals and computer‐assisted analyses of habitat availability are enhancing the study and monitoring of populations. Molecular genetic techniques are providing information on the evolutionary history of cat populations and data on social structure and behavior. Warren Johnson / Stephen J. O'Brien / Melanie Culver Factfile - Small Cats Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae 29...

Reptiles

Reptiles   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,582 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and thus of limb reduction and body elongation within this group. Anguimorph lizards (180 living species, not counting snakes) are generally medium to large predators, and include the two species of Gila monsters (the only venomous lizards), as well as the Komodo dragon (a large monitor) and mosasaurs (gigantic, extinct marine predators). All anguimorphs possess a distinctive pattern of tooth replacement and a retractile, deeply forked tongue that is used to detect prey odors. Many also have highly flexible lower jaws and sharp recurved teeth. All these traits...

Development

Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
11,771 words
Illustration(s):
2

...patterns of speciation, and evolution. Some of the outstanding questions that remain are How do developmental events and the timing of those events influence phenotypic plasticity? In species that use environmental cues as induction triggers, how are those cues detected and monitored? How and why are those cues originally “captured” and integrated into developmental systems? When and why is phenotypic variation favored? What conditions favor genetic polymorphisms versus environmentally induced polyphenisms? How does phenotypic plasticity and the development...

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