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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

geologicazl surveys

geologicazl surveys   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...but improving knowledge of the state of local or regional crustal stress increases our ability to foretell these shocks, as does surveying visible expressions of earthquakes, such as fault scarps. Most geological survey organizations include units concerned with this aspect of monitoring. In addition to producing maps of both outcrop and subsurface geology, geophysical characteristics, and mineralogical and geochemical maps, geological surveying has, since the 1950s, been extended to the continental shelves adjacent to land masses. This activity has been driven...

remote sensing

remote sensing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,839 words
Illustration(s):
1

...correlations and coincidences become visible, so that Earth scientists can use them in modelling natural processes. Such geographical information systems lend themselves to exploration for many physical and biological resources, and environmental management and monitoring, as well as for more academic pursuits. S. A....

mammals

mammals   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
2,878 words
Illustration(s):
3

...mammals produce a great deal of heat within their bodies by physiological means: indeed, it is estimated that fully nine-tenths of what we eat is devoted to temperature control (which is why a crocodile consumes one-tenth of what a human does). The heat production is closely monitored to maintain a precisely constant body temperature. In other words, mammals are endothermic (‘internal heat’) homeotherms (‘constant temperature’). Different species of mammals maintain different temperature set points, but these are generally in the range 35–40 °C, and small...

Palmer Drought Severity Index

Palmer Drought Severity Index   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,226 words
Illustration(s):
2

...original PDSI. It also reports extreme dry and wet events with frequency of occurrences more in line with rare events. With the advent of the U.S. Drought Monitor (drought.unl.edu/dm) ( Svoboda et al., 2002 ) in 1999 , PALMER DROUGHT SEVERITY INDEX. Figure 2. Status of drought severity in the United States on 1 July 1934 . (Data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.) the North American Drought Monitor ( Lawrimore et al., 2002 ) shortly thereafter, and the National Integrated Drought Information System and its Web portal (“U.S. Drought Portal”) in 2006...

Snow Cover

Snow Cover   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...take months to melt and are thus important sources of summer water for many arid regions. Monitoring the extent, depth, and water resources contained in the snow cover is done using a variety of tools. Because snow is white with a high albedo, it is easy to differentiate snow-covered from snow-free land using satellites. The hemispheric extent of the snow cover has been tracked this way since 1967 and provides an important record of climate. Snow cover depth is monitored at thousands of weather stations. These data are used with reanalysis models to produce...

Satellite Observation

Satellite Observation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Calif.: Academic, 1995. King, Michael D. , et al., eds. Our Changing Planet: The View from Space . Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Rao, P. K. , et al., eds. Weather Satellites: Systems, Data, and Environmental Applications . Boston: American Meteorological Society, 1990. Schmidt, G. , and J. Wolfe . Climate Change: Picturing the Science. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2009. Liou, K.N. An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation , 2d edition. International Geophysics Series, Volume 84. San Diego: Academic Press, 2002....

Ionosphere

Ionosphere   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,086 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Electrical Engineers, 1989. Rishbeth, H. , and O. K. Garriott . Introduction to Ionospheric Physics . New York: Academic, 1969. Schunk, R. W. “The Terrestrial Ionosphere.” In Solar Terrestrial Physics: Principles and Theoretical Foundations , edited by R. L. Carovillano and J. M. Forbes , pp. 609–676. Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel; Hingham, Mass.: Sold and distributed in the United States and Canada by Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1983. Stewart, B. “ Hypothetical Views Regarding the Connection between the State of the Sun and Terrestrial...

Icebergs

Icebergs   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...drift speed southward varies from 20 to 40 kilometers per day, and the larger icebergs, which survive melt and breakup, may reach farther south than 45° north latitude, where they pose a hazard to shipping. On rare occasions, ice has survived as far south as Bermuda. Iceberg monitoring for the purposes of reducing collisions with shipping is conducted by the International Ice Patrol, overseen by the U.S. Coast Guard. This organization has maintained iceberg surveillance south of 48° north latitude since 1913 , following the sinking of the SS Titanic by...

Africa

Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,084 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and vulnerabilities to periods of climate stress. Adaptive responses for changes in climate will thus need to include ways to reduce risks associated with change including improved climate monitoring, data acquisition, and information sharing. Simple Early Warning Systems, based on climate and food estimates, may now have to be expanded to include creative ways of monitoring a range of other risk factors coupled to climate change and variability including improved and accessible information on childhood nutrition, social welfare status in communities,...

Longwave Radiation

Longwave Radiation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Liou, K-N. , An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation , Amsterdam and Boston.: Elsevier Academic, 2002. Peixoto, J. P. , and A. H. Oort . Physics of Climate . New York: American Institute of Physics, 1992. Ramanathan, V. , B. R. Barkstrom , and E. F. Harrison . “ Climate and the Earth's Radiation Budget .” Physics Today 42 (1989): 22–32. Wallace, J. M. , and P. V. Hobbs . Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey . 2d ed. Amsterdam and Boston: Elsevier Academic, 2006. V....

Drought

Drought   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...drought); and it provides a useful means of monitoring trends in the spatial dimensions of a developing drought. [ See Palmer Drought Severity Index .] However, no single definition of drought fits all circumstances, and no single index is appropriate for all circumstances. The U.S. Department of Agriculture and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the U.S. Department of Commerce, together with other federal, local, and academic agencies and institutes, issue weekly updates of the Drought Monitor, a mapped synthesis of multiple indices and...

Snow

Snow   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...weather creates strong temperature gradients across the snow pack, the burial of surface layers without good bonding to adjacent layers, and the formation of wind slabs, produce weak layers that are known to lead to avalanche initiation. [ See Avalanches .] More comprehensive monitoring of surface weather conditions, and numerical modeling of snow metamorphism has improved prediction ability, yet the subtlety of some of the weak layer formation processes still elude successful prediction. Lastly, in cold regions, the bulk of atmospheric pollutants enter the...

Atmospheric Chemistry and Composition

Atmospheric Chemistry and Composition   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...Measurement of Ozone .” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 106, no. 1–3 (2005): 59–80. Finlayson-Pitts, B. J. , and J. N. Pitts Jr. Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques . New York: Wiley, 1986. Graedel, T. E. , and P. J. Crutzen . Atmospheric Change: An Earth-System Perspective . New York: W.H. Freeman, 1993. Seinfeld, J. H. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution . New York: Wiley, 1986. Warneck, P. Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere . San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1988. Wayne, R. P. Chemistry of...

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...public financing until developing nations put forward ambitious emissions limitation commitments; some developing nations are reluctant to begin implementing their pledges absent financing from industrialized nations; and each side has demanded that the other submit to robust monitoring. Moreover, the lack of any mandatory limits on emissions means that it is difficult, in the UNFCCC context, to mobilize financing through the kinds of carbon markets established under the Kyoto Protocol. And the international credibility of the Accord's principal champion, the...

Meta-analysis

Meta-analysis   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...( 2008 ) monitored 29,000 natural systems between 1970 and 2004 ; most of the studies synthesized examined the impact of climate change on plants and animals; others focused on the impact of climate change on land, water, and ice. The literature sampled by Rosenzweig ( 2008 ) studied, for example, the perturbation of polar bear behavior; timing of peak stream flow of grape harvests and of spring flowering and bird migration; and variation in the freeze–thaw pattern in tundra, in krill stocks, and in glacier “wastage.” All phenomena were monitored for at...

Cyclones

Cyclones   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,580 words
Illustration(s):
7

...an increase in temperature in the center and conversion to a warm-core tropical system. For this reason, subtropical cyclones over warm waters must be monitored for potential development into tropical cyclones. [ See also Storms .] Bibliography Ramage, C. S. “ The Subtropical Cyclone .” Journal of Geophysical Research 67 (1962): 1401–1411. Kichl, H. Climate and Weather in the Tropics. New York: Academic Press, 1979. Simpson, R. H. “ Evolution of the Kona Storm: A Subtropical Cyclone .” Journal of Meteorology 9 (1952): 24–35. Timothy P. Eichler...

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication

Agricultural Extension and Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Linda S. Prokopy, Wendy-Lin Bartels, Gary Burniske, and Rebecca Power

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...monitoring and evaluation of agriculture and natural resources programs in the late 1980s. CARE organized a global workshop in Kisumu, Kenya, bringing in project managers and RTAs from Africa, Latin America, and Asia. The workshop, which was in part facilitated by ICRAF, helped CARE institutionalize farmer feedback on the effectiveness of extension approaches and technologies designed to boost food security and income on small farmer holdings. The RTAs in turn were responsible for helping CARE country offices in the uptake of participatory monitoring and...

Shifting Roles of Science Journalists Covering Climate Change

Shifting Roles of Science Journalists Covering Climate Change   Reference library

Michael Brüggemann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...assembled in Weaver and Willnat ( 2012 ) . These surveys, while portraying the diversity and complexity of journalistic role conceptions around the world, also showed a certain global convergence around the Western self-image of the journalist as a detached observer who monitors government, thus performing both a conduit’s and a watchdog’s role. A broad sample of environmental reporters in the United States reflected this role conception, with every second reporter saying that environmental journalists should be objective and should never advocate...

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands

Climate Change Communication in the Netherlands   Reference library

Art Dewulf, Daan Boezeman, and Martinus Vink

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,430 words
Illustration(s):
2

...“linesman,” demarcating the playing field for political actors to bargain in, while its assessments are remarkably seen as reliable, neutral, and “true” across the board ( Halffman, 2009 ; Halffman & Hoppe, 2005 ). Besides assessing scientific evidence for climate policy, it monitors progress and contributes to the IPCC. Other standing boundary organizations include the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute (KNMI) that develops climate scenarios, Deltares as an applied-science water consultancy, and Energy Center Netherlands for energy consultancy. The...

Sustainability Science and Climate Change Communication

Sustainability Science and Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Bridie McGreavy and David Hart

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
14,876 words
Illustration(s):
1

...between researchers and stakeholders in iterative processes of research design, collaboration, and engagement and the development of multiple types of solutions ( Hart et al., 2015 ). In the NEST Safe Beaches and Shellfish project, students and faculty at a host of academic and non-academic institutions in New England, including the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire, College of the Atlantic, Plymouth State University, Maine and New Hampshire Sea Grant, Maine Department of Marine Resources (DMR), Maine Department of Environmental Protection (DEP), and...

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