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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Burnout in Sport and Performance

Burnout in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Robert C. Eklund and J. D. DeFreese

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...athletes as a means of burnout monitoring, prevention, and, when warranted, treatment. Finally, longitudinal burnout monitoring efforts should be a feature of future research and, in particular, monitoring that includes biometric assessments. The previously mentioned foundational, longitudinal work has shed some light on the development of burnout in athlete samples, but research gaps remain in our understanding of variables moderating and mediating its progression. These gaps may start to be addressed via systematic monitoring during athletes’ intensive...

Anxiety and Fear in Sport and Performance

Anxiety and Fear in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Shuge Zhang, Tim Woodman, and Ross Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...& Jones, 1996 ). Another skill-focused perspective stems from Baumeister’s ( 1984 ) seminal work on testing the effect of explicit monitoring, the explicit monitoring hypothesis (EMH; Beilock & Carr, 2001 ). Similar to the CPH, the EMH proposes that when performers experience anxiety, they tend to monitor their performance throughout task execution in an attempt to ensure excellent performance; such monitoring disrupts well-established routines and makes performance vulnerable. To test the EMH, Beilock and Carr trained a sample of novice golfers to...

Ethical Considerations in Sport and Performance Psychology

Ethical Considerations in Sport and Performance Psychology   Reference library

Edward F. Etzel and Leigh A. Skvarla

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...and professionals to monitor their competencies and maintain their self-awareness of ethics applications in their respective training programs and careers. To take a page from ACA’s playbook, professionals could be regularly required to fulfill a specific number of hours of ethics training in order to renew their license or certification. For example, in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, continuing education in ethics is not currently required for those with the CC-AASP designation or renewal. In addition, instructors, academic advisors, and professional...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa   Reference library

Clinton Gahwiler, Lee Hill, and Valérie Grand’Maison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,560 words
Illustration(s):
1

...ultimately communicating these clearly to all stakeholders, including the general public. Other SADC countries have professional organizations that monitor developments in physical education generally, but not yet specifically for sport psychology. The Botswana Association of Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance (BAPHERD), for example, was established in 1994 in an effort to promote and monitor physical education research, programs, and policies in the country. Zimbabwe, Namibia, Mozambique, Angola, and Madagascar have formed similar...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in North America   Reference library

Vincent J. Granito

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...a professional sports environment ( Green, 2003 ). Griffith’s work with Cubs ended in 1940 because of his decision to take an academic administration position at Illinois. Influential Individuals and Their Work: The Contemporaries Research on sport, exercise, and performance psychology blossomed after the 1960s and involved a much greater connection between first, second, and third generations of members in the field from academic programs that started in the 1940s and 1950s. There has also been greater diversity of experiences in the post-Griffith era,...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia   Reference library

Jeffrey Bond and Tony Morris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the early 1980s, two distinct groups undertook sport psychology practice in elite sport in Australia. A very small number of Australian academics had studied motor learning and basic sport psychology in North America. After returning to Australia, these individuals collected psychological profile data from some sporting teams (predominantly Australian Rules football players). Prominent among this group was a cluster of academics based at the University of Western Australia (UWA) that included Denis Glencross, Gerry Jones, and Geoff Watson. This group was very...

Strength Training and Sport Psychology

Strength Training and Sport Psychology   Reference library

E. Whitney G. Moore

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...used across the six elite SCCs. First, coaches’ silent monitoring of their athletes during training averaged 22% of their behaviors (range: 14–35%). Second, management of the training sessions averaged 14% of the coaches’ behaviors (range: 6–35%). Third, the coaches’ verbally motivating the athletes to hustle (i.e., give high or more effort) averaged 11% of their behaviors (range: 4–21%). Taken together, these coaches spent approximately half of their training sessions managing, silently monitoring, and motivating their athletes. These SCCs’ most frequent behaviors...

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings

Psychosocial Measurement Issues in Sport and Exercise Settings   Reference library

Gershon Tenenbaum and Edson Filho

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,421 words
Illustration(s):
5

...to position monitoring hardware (e.g., GPS and accelerometers) and software (i.e., sport performance video analysis). Position monitoring analysis allows researchers and practitioners to identify tactical patterns adopted by players, including the relative spread and direction in the field space of actions in interactive team sports. Recently, multi-subject monitoring of peripheral and central physiological responses has been conducted to monitor team processes and performance (see Filho, Bertollo, Robazza, & Comani, 2015 ). In monitoring multisubjects,...

Evaluation of Psychological Interventions in Sport and Exercise Settings

Evaluation of Psychological Interventions in Sport and Exercise Settings   Reference library

Rebecca A. Zakrajsek and Jedediah E. Blanton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...situations. A total of 23 interventions across 19 published studies met the inclusion criteria and were categorized into three intervention categories: relaxation techniques (e.g., visuomotor behavior rehearsal and imagery); behavioral techniques (e.g., reinforcement, self-monitoring, feedback); and cognitive restructuring techniques (e.g., systematic desensitization and stress inoculation). Vealey ( 1994 ) has examined the status of the sport-psychology intervention research published since Greenspan and Feltz’s review. Using the same inclusion criteria,...

Alcohol Abuse and Drug Use in Sport and Performance

Alcohol Abuse and Drug Use in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Matthew P. Martens

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...of motivational interviewing interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 79 , 433–440. Johnston, L. D. , O’Malley, P. M. , Bachman, J. , Schulenberg, J. E. , & Miech, R. A. (2015). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2014: Volume 2, College students and adults ages 19–55 . Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Kingsland, M. , Wolfenden, L. , Tindall, J. , Rowland, B. C. , Lecathelinais, C. , Gillham, K...

Psychological Considerations for the Older Athlete

Psychological Considerations for the Older Athlete   Reference library

Bradley W. Young, Bettina Callary, and Scott Rathwell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...B. W. (2017). Alignment of Masters swim coaches’ approaches with the andragogy in practice model . International Sport Coaching Journal , 4 , 177–190. CFLRI (Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute) . (2013). Sport participation in Canada: 2011–2012 sport monitor . Cardenas, D. , Henderson, K. A. , & Wilson, B. E. (2009). Physical activity and Senior Games participation: Benefits, constraints, and behaviors . Journal of Aging & Physical Activity , 17 , 135–153. Carmack, M. A. , & Martens, R. (1979). Measuring commitment to running:...

Exercise Psychology Considerations for Chronically Ill Patients

Exercise Psychology Considerations for Chronically Ill Patients   Reference library

Ray Marks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...by a patient at rest and during the required activity. They should train the individual in pain reduction skills as required through relaxation, distraction, or imagery and have the patient repeat the demanding activity while applying the acquired pain reduction skills and monitor the improvements in pain that result ( O’Leary, Schoor, Lorig, & Holman, 1988 ). In addition to educating patients to better manage pain, educating them to cope with disease flares and any disease progression and helping them to understand why and how emotional reactions can...

Coaching Behavior and Effectiveness in Sport and Exercise Psychology

Coaching Behavior and Effectiveness in Sport and Exercise Psychology   Reference library

Ronald E. Smith and Frank L. Smoll

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...without awareness of one’s behavior, MAC coaches are taught the use of two proven behavioral-change techniques, namely, behavioral feedback and self-monitoring. To obtain feedback, coaches are encouraged to work with their assistants as a team and share descriptions of each others’ behaviors. Another feedback procedure involves coaches soliciting input directly from their athletes. With respect to self-monitoring, the workshop manual includes a brief Coach Self-Report Form, containing nine items related to the behavioral guidelines that coaches complete after...

Psychological Considerations for Children and Adolescents in Sport and Performance

Psychological Considerations for Children and Adolescents in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Mary Fry and Candace M. Hogue

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
10,098 words
Illustration(s):
1

...between perceptions of a caring climate in sport settings and the hope and happiness of youth and negative relationships with depression and sadness ( Fry et al., 2012 ). Similar associations have been found between caring climates and the ability of youth athletes to monitor and control their affective responses. This self-regulation was found to contribute to athlete empathy, indicating that fostering more caring climates in sport settings may facilitate positive social interactions and character development ( Gano-Overway et al., 2009 ). Last,...

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Claudio Robazza and Montse C. Ruiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
13,178 words
Illustration(s):
3

...to change the subjective, expressive, or physiological aspects of emotions when the experience is already happening. Compared to antecedent-focused regulation, response-focused regulation—in particular, suppression—may require greater resources (i.e., more cognitive effort) to monitor and regulate emotion-expressive behavior ( Richards & Gross, 2000 ). Three common (core) features of emotion regulation are the activation of a regulatory goal (i.e., what people try to accomplish), the emotion regulation strategy (i.e., the particular processes to achieve...

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology

Research Methods in Sport and Exercise Psychology   Reference library

Sicong Liu and Gershon Tenenbaum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...controlled trials with pretest-posttest cognitive measurement. For example, in a study investigating whether physical exercise increases students’ academic achievement, Davis et al. ( 2011 ) randomly allocated 171 overweight children to three conditions, including two exercise conditions (differing in exercise dosage) and a passive control condition. In addition, Davis and colleagues measured the children’s academic achievements before and after a 13-week exercise program. The causal inference in the pretest-posttest experimental design could be made through...

Psychological Aspects of Athletic Training

Psychological Aspects of Athletic Training   Reference library

Heather N. Schuyler, Brieanne R. Seguin, Nicole Anne Wilkins, and J. Jordan Hamson-Utley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
13,867 words
Illustration(s):
3

...adapting to the challenges of returning to competition ( Podlog & Eklund, 2007 ). Therefore, it is imperative that the athletic trainer identify and develop coping resources early. Stress inventories and pain disability indexes are two tools that aid in identifying stress and monitoring the patient. The inventories can assist the athletic trainer in making the appropriate referral or in deploying the appropriate coping skill. Stress inventories and pain disability indexes are within the scope of practice for athletic trainers and are a part of the educational...

Goal Setting in Sport and Performance

Goal Setting in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Laura Healy, Alison Tincknell-Smith, and Nikos Ntoumanis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...both positively and negatively. Additionally, the athletes did not use the formal methods of goal setting outlined within the literature. For example, processes such as writing goals down, setting dates for goals to be achieved, using SMART principles ( Doran, 1981 ), or monitoring progress were not adopted by the athletes. This draws comparisons with other criticisms of the applied recommendations for goal setting, which identifies ambiguity in the interpretation of the SMART term ( Wade, 2009 ). Maitland and Gervis ( 2010 ) suggested that if coaches...

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