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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

gastroenterology

gastroenterology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
1,677 words

...carbon dioxide in expired air is the basis for various breath tests. Because changes in the breath reflect altered digestion and absorption, these tests offer non-invasive ways to study the function of the small bowel and pancreas. Breath tests can also diagnose and monitor the treatment of Helicobacter pylori , an organism recently identified as the principal cause of duodenal ulcers and a risk factor for adenocarcinoma (cancer arising from the glands) of the stomach. The Helicobacter story is a vivid example of how a new theory — or paradigm —...

nursing in Britain

nursing in Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,433 words

...cardiac monitoring became available. Nurses became essential members of teams that became increasingly specialized. As they gained insight into the uniqueness of their role, they also refined the method of registration, examination, and evaluating their professional competence. On-going assessment of practical skills in giving and planning individual care, knowledge of responsibilities for drug therapy, ability to plan for a group of patients, and for the nurses who give that care, has taken the place of classroom tests. Academic education As academic entry...

specialization

specialization   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,307 words

...were previously inaccessible, and new treatments have created specialties such as oncology and intensive care. It is statistically evident that specialist centers acting within their own limited range can deliver safer and more effective, if more expensive, care. The demand for monitoring performance thus drives the hospital service towards specialization and the increasing volume of medical negligence litigation makes doctors wary of operating outside their expertise. As a reaction against this, there has been a growing movement in favor of ‘whole person...

general practice

general practice   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,231 words

...now a substantial research base and many publications throughout Britain. However, general practice — both as a service and as an academic discipline — has been disadvantaged compared with hospital clinical disciplines in terms of infrastructure support, critical mass, breadth of disciplinary base, and access to resources to maintain and develop successful program-based research teams. The agreement of the NHS to provide some academic support money to underpin both teaching and research infrastructure in 1992 represented an important landmark and further...

pharmacy

pharmacy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,801 words

...now act as clinical pharmacists, often for a particular specialty such as cardiology or intensive care. The 1990s has seen diversification in the range of career opportunities for pharmacists. In Britain, increasing numbers of pharmacists work directly for health authorities, monitoring prescribing and dispensing, and advising on measures to increase the effective and economic use of medicines. Others are employed directly by groups of medical practitioners to develop formularies, and advise on the better use of medicines. Similar trends are apparent in other...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,715 words

...of about the annual output of two large medical schools. Medical education in Australia which leads to a primary degree in medicine is controlled by the Australian Medical Council, a national audit and policy body which reports to the Department of Health and Family Services. It monitors student course content, curriculum balance, standards, and the numbers of funded places for medical students. The cost of medical education to each student is largely subsidized by federal and state grants; but each medical student pays an annual higher education contribution of...

hospitals

hospitals   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
2,998 words

...position as flagships of scientific medicine, and were besieged by a steady demand for more beds and services. Increased specialization and advanced medical technology led the way. Lacking funds, many hospitals in Europe simply retained their antiquated and cramped facilities, monitored by regional or central government agencies that exercised control over location, finances, and supply of beds. In Britain, implementation of the National Health Service Act of 1946 placed all hospitals under government ownership. Their medical staffs remained closed and...

Pharmacology and Drug Therapy

Pharmacology and Drug Therapy   Reference library

Jeremy A. Greene

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...), the Squibb Institute for Medical Research ( 1938 ), the Abbott Research Laboratories ( 1938 ), and many more thereafter. During this time a previously standoffish relationship between academic pharmacologists and industrial laboratories gave way to a far more interpenetrated vision. New collaborations among the pharmaceutical industry, academic pharmacologists, and academic clinicians would become crucial to the development of many successful new agents, from insulin to amphetamines to anticoagulants. The basic collaborative research structure established in...

Health Maintenance Organizations

Health Maintenance Organizations   Reference library

Jan Gregoire Coombs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...attributes of HMOs. Competition among these insurance companies facilitated the transformation of health care into a corporate industry. The term “managed care” entered the American lexicon as newly trained lay insurance administrators employed business management tools to monitor and control physician decisions about patient care to decrease costs and maximize profits. Economic pressures and rapidly escalating health-care costs eventually forced many large companies to bypass insurance carriers entirely by developing self-funded plans. Some contracted...

Military, Science and Technology and The

Military, Science and Technology and The   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and Experience aboard the USS Monitor . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. Mirowski, Philip . Machine Dreams: Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Moore, Kelly . Disrupting Science: Social Movements, American Scientists, and the Politics of the Military, 1945–1975 . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008. Needell, Allan A. Science, Cold War and the American State: Lloyd V. Berkner and the Balance of Professional Ideals . London: Harwood Academic Publishers, 2000. Neushul, Peter...

Shipbuilding

Shipbuilding   Reference library

Joshua M. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...problems of scale, mechanical propulsion, and iron frames and hulls. However, commercial shipyards seldom built naval craft in this period, denying an effective transfer of ideas between the two. This changed somewhat during the Civil War, with innovative vessels like USS Monitor built in commercial shipyards. The American shipbuilding industry did not thrive after the Civil War. Eastern shipyards found it more difficult to procure appropriate timber, and cheaper and technologically superior British iron and later steel ships drove American shipping from...

Biochemistry

Biochemistry   Reference library

Todd M. Olszewski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Institute developed and introduced new analytical methods to diagnose specific diseases. In similar fashion, biochemists affiliated with medical schools during the 1920s and 1930s introduced new research techniques and laboratory technologies that enabled researchers to monitor and measure molecular changes occurring in metabolic processes. The use of X-ray crystallography to investigate protein structure and the use of isotopes to trace chemical changes occurring in physiological processes were among two such developments. The first half of the...

Gender and Science

Gender and Science   Reference library

Londa Schiebinger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...occurred during the late twentieth and early twenty-first century surrounding dual-career academic hiring. Since the eighteenth century, what North Americans commonly call “individuals” have, in fact, been heads of households—typically, male professionals with mobile family units consisting of a stay-at-home wife and children. With many a professional woman, by contrast, comes a professional man, very often in a field of study close to her own. Dual-Career Academic Couples: What Universities Need to Know ( 2008 ), a study of 30,000 faculty at 13 top...

War and Medicine

War and Medicine   Reference library

Dale Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...academics in the service for the duration of the war, and academics still in civilian life. The board formed a series of commissions to investigate various camp disease problems, starting with respiratory infections but soon including gastrointestinal infections and other diseases. At the end of the war, the organization was rechartered as the Army Epidemiological Board and then, in 1949 , renamed the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board. The board served as a continuing and dynamic interface between military medical research and the civilian academic...

Pediatrics

Pediatrics   Reference library

Jeffrey P. Baker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...New Pediatrics. In the 1960s, academic generalists coined the phrase “new morbidity” to express how pediatricians now faced a very different set of problems than those confronting their predecessors a generation earlier. They argued that general pediatrics would lose its relevance unless practitioners embraced the psychosocial dimensions of childhood. Pediatricians in the final decades of the twentieth century did in fact find themselves dealing more with nonmedical issues such as behavioral and developmental problems, academic failure, and the emotional...

HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS   Reference library

Gerald M. Oppenheimer and Ronald Bayer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...individuals with AIDS or serious symptoms associated with HIV infection were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of the drug AZT under the auspices of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. Six months later the study was halted by its data-monitoring board on the ethical grounds that those on AZT were clearly benefitting compared to others only receiving a placebo. Of 137 participants, 19 of the latter had died, compared to 1 of the 145 on the new agent. What was so striking was that many of those on AZT underwent a...

Research And Development

Research And Development   Reference library

Steven W. Usselman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...budget allocations, distributed nearly half a billion dollars to R&D projects aimed at generating new weapons. All told, OSRD entered into over 2,300 research contracts and distributed funds to some 321 industrial companies and another 142 academic institutions and other nonprofits. Whether aimed at academics or industry, OSRD funds went overwhelmingly to institutions with established research capabilities. This meant most of the money flowed to a handful of states in New England and the mid-Atlantic, plus California. Together, MIT and Caltech received...

Cardiology

Cardiology   Reference library

W. Bruce Fye

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...death. During the 1960s, three innovations had major implications for the care of patients with coronary heart disease: the coronary care unit (CCU), coronary angiography, and bypass surgery. Technologies introduced the previous decade, such as continuous electrocardiograph monitoring, pacemakers, and transthoracic (external) defibrillators, enabled doctors to treat some life-threatening heart rhythm disorders. In 1960 , electrical engineer William Kouwenhoven and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins combined defibrillation with closed-chest cardiac massage and...

Ethics and Professionalism In Engineering

Ethics and Professionalism In Engineering   Reference library

Sarah K. A. Pfatteicher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...an engineering licensing statute. All of the state laws followed the basic pattern of a model law drafted by the ASCE in 1910 . “All” engineers were required to register, but many were exempted, especially government and corporate engineers, who presumably were already being monitored and were not directly in contact with the public. Generally, state examining boards were made up of engineers approved by the state society. Most states required some sort of examination in general engineering knowledge. And all states provided a mechanism for revoking a license...

Instruments of Science

Instruments of Science   Reference library

Deborah J. Warner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...light meters, and the like were produced by the Weston Electrical Instrument Company in New Jersey and the meter division of General Electric under the leadership of Elihu Thomson. American ingenuity can also be seen in the water meters, current meters, and other devices that monitor so many aspects of modern life. Biology. Drosophila melanogaster , the common fruit fly, became a standard experimental organism around 1900 , largely through the work of William Castle at Harvard University and Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University. The Jackson Laboratory...

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