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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Children's Convention

Children's Convention   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,114 words

...on the Rights of the Child, the specialized UN agencies and procedures with a mandate over children's rights issues, and certain civil society organizations act as the primary monitors of the implementation of the Convention and its two Optional Protocols. Although the process of international monitoring aims to provide a benchmark against which states are expected to monitor and adjust their own performance with respect to the realization of children's rights at the national level, in practice states appear to be more concerned with accountability on the...

Limburg Principles on Socioeconomic Rights

Limburg Principles on Socioeconomic Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,268 words

...by all appropriate means, taking into account available resources. Compared to that of the ICCPR, the procedure for monitoring observance of the ICESCR by states parties was weak as well. In 1985 the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) decided to upgrade the monitoring procedure of the ICESCR. A new body composed of experts acting in their individual capacity would replace the Sessional Working Group of ECOSOC that had thus far monitored implementation of the ICESCR by states. This working group was composed of representatives of governments who were not...

Index on Censorship

Index on Censorship   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,309 words

...These multi-media, multi-disciplinary projects include: needs assessment, training, network building, advocacy and recommendations for national media law reforms and structures.” The Index also monitors hate speech in many regions of the world. According to the 2008 Index Web site, the projects are designed to bridge the gap “between the monitoring of abuse and effective advocacy for change through facilitation, research, publication, advocacy and new commissioned works.” Other activities include the following: •  Facilitation : The Index ...

B'Tselem

B'Tselem   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,146 words

...Torture in Israel ( PCATI ); as well as LAW—The Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights and the Environment and the Palestinian Human Rights Monitoring Group. B’Tselem's Activities B’Tselem's executive director oversees its research, data coordination, fieldwork, communications, and administration departments. Field researchers staff each of the Palestinian districts. Academics, lawyers, journalists, civil rights leaders, and activists compose its board of directors. Its multilingual Web site (English, Hebrew, Arabic, and Russian) allows...

Kenya

Kenya   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,935 words

... the first NGO explicitly committed to the promotion of human rights, the Kenya Human Rights Commission, was formed by Kenyan academics and lawyers. Other human rights groups also emerged, including Release Political Prisoners, dedicated to the freedom of individuals jailed for political offenses. These NGOs started working closely with international human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch in monitoring and documenting human rights violations. Western foundations, such as the Swedish NGO Foundation, Ford Foundation, and...

Freedom House

Freedom House   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,150 words

...gave Martin Luther King Jr. national prominence. Rustin, whose A. Philip Randolph Institute merged labor and civil rights objectives, served for many years as a Freedom House officer. He traveled through Africa, the Caribbean, and Central America on Freedom House missions to monitor elections and test the level of human rights abroad. Under Freedom House's second executive director, Leonard R. Sussman, who served from 1967 to 1988 , the organization launched its assessments of human rights and freedom of the press and embarked on other major publishing...

Right to Health and Health Care

Right to Health and Health Care   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,091 words

...concerned the adoption of General Comment 14 on the “right to the highest attainable standard of health” in Article 12 of the ICESCR, adopted in 2000 by the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights ( CESCR ), the treaty-monitoring body of the ICESCR. A general comment is a document drawn up by a UN treaty-monitoring body that explains the meaning and implications of a certain aspect of a treaty and seeks to assist state parties in fulfilling their reporting obligations. General Comment 14 was adopted by the CESCR after consultation with NGOs and...

Vietnam

Vietnam   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,350 words

...the late 1990s, reading them has been without consequences. Internet freedom is restricted, with access subject to government control. Internet activities are monitored by public security agents, and Internet service providers are required to store information transmitted on the Internet for some time and to provide technical assistance to the government public security staff to allow monitoring. Internet agents, such as cybercafes, are required to register personal information of their customers. Owners of Web sites are required to register their sites...

Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,004 words

...against Women monitors compliance with the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Article 6 obligates states to adopt legislation to suppress “traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution.” The 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women denounces trafficking and forced prostitution. A special rapporteur on violence against women appointed the following year distinguished sexual exploitation from legitimate sex work. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child monitors compliance with two optional...

Women

Women   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
22,697 words

...civil society and private actors. On the advocacy side, the leadership of the NGOs, academics, UN agencies, and others who were instrumental in placing women's human rights and CEDAW on the map is nearing retirement, and a new generation must find its passion and its path. Progress in living up to the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights mandate to integrate women's human rights into all human rights activities has created additional challenges. The other treaty-monitoring bodies now include, to varying extents, consideration of sex discrimination issues in...

Theo van Boven

Theo van Boven   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,590 words

...and widely cited document on the issue. Ten years later, he was involved in yet another international conference that created the Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. These guidelines were to provide remedies for such violations by monitoring and adjudicating bodies at the national, regional, and international level. In his individual capacity, Van Boven gave advice to the so-called comfort women, who, as detainees during World War II, had been forced to perform as prostitutes with Japanese soldiers and who demanded...

Business and Human Rights

Business and Human Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,517 words

...offered incentives for corporations to think more carefully about issues such as diversity and environmental performance. Perhaps most important, the Internet and dramatically better and cheaper communications technologies greatly facilitated the monitoring of corporate performance around the world by NGOs, academics, consultants, and social movements. A series of highly publicized campaigns against such famous corporations as De Beers, Nike, and Royal Dutch/Shell in the 1990s made issues of corporate human rights behavior front-page news. Corporate Social...

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,625 words

...in the United States. The ACLU's Response to 11 September 2001 The ACLU's human rights work became even more significant following the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The U.S. government's response to the attacks threatened civil liberties in numerous ways: surveillance programs monitored the activities of U.S. citizens and foreign nationals without probable cause or court order; immigration policies resulted in thousands of arrests, many motivated solely on ethnic, national, or religious grounds; detention policies authorized extended incarceration without...

Roméo Dallaire

Roméo Dallaire   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,233 words

...three children. He became the commandant of Collège Militaire Royal de Saint-Jean with the arrival of a post–Cold War new world order in 1990 . At the height of the U.S.-Soviet rivalry, Canada's Lester Pearson had promoted UN peacekeeping to create a neutral buffer force monitoring a cease-fire between states at war. Dallaire trained Canadian peacekeepers for a different type of UN mission within states torn by civil war—Bosnia and Cambodia. Crimes against humanity in failed states increasingly forced the UN to take sides by making rather than keeping the...

Torture

Torture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
21,128 words

...reports submitted for the different conventions. After a comprehensive review of all human rights monitoring supported by the Ford Foundation, in 2006 the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights formally proposed a consolidation of the committees into a single permanent monitoring body with full-time paid members. CAT members concerned that the merger would detract from the needed focus on torture requested additional resources for their own monitoring. The United States and other major donors’ persistent demands for budget reform in combination...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,277 words

...human rights would progress as Russia democratized. These hopes have, unfortunately, been unfulfilled. At first erratically but later in a more systematic fashion, human rights—whether civil, political, or social—have been eroded. At the same time, civil society's ability to monitor and protest rights violations has diminished because of the weakening of social life during Russia's economic depression in the 1990s and subsequently because of state action. The failure to develop human rights and their erosion cannot be separated from the development of...

Media

Media   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,050 words

...nation's media, it serves as a detailed example of how government can infringe on freedom of the press in a variety of ways and for a variety of reasons. Bytwerk, Randall . Nazi Propaganda (1933–1945) . http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/ww2era.htm . Part of the larger German Propaganda Archive ( http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/ ) at Calvin College, this archive provides a wealth of English-language-translated propaganda pieces from Nazi Germany. Analyses may be found in Bytwerk's two books (Bending Spines: The Propagandas of Nazi Germany and the...

Disability Rights

Disability Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
13,025 words

...rules consist of four parts: preconditions for equal participation, target areas for equal participation, implementation measures, and monitoring mechanism. The latter is rather peculiar for a nonbinding instrument but indicative of the fact that the standard rules are an “international instrument of a different type.” At their adoption a special rapporteur was appointed by the UN Commission for Social Development to monitor their implementation. The rules and special rapporteur have played a crucial role in strengthening human rights protection for people...

Terrorism

Terrorism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,119 words

...programs. Governments have developed increasingly sophisticated and powerful methods for monitoring communications. The ability of governments to monitor Internet activity, telephone communications, library records, and financial transactions has raised privacy concerns. Should governments have the authority to monitor private activities and communications? Should citizens be afforded greater privacy protections than foreign nationals? Should such monitoring be subject to judicial review? Detention policies have also raised concerns. Counterterrorist...

Eritrea

Eritrea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,780 words

...Tesfa Delina Foundation, both of which operate out of California. Eritrea itself has seen an explosion of Internet connectedness, particularly among young people in the main towns and cities. However, the four private Internet service providers are monitored internally by the state, e-mail is routinely monitored, and foreign broadcasts are periodically jammed. All cultural exchanges are managed by the state. Renewing a Commitment to Rights An early, sustained focus on establishment of a rights-based state in Eritrea by the democracy activists who fell victim...

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