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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

universities and higher education

universities and higher education   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,069 words

...autonomous power lies with the lay‐dominated Board of Governors or Council, but the collective of academics/faculty remain influential via the Academic Board/Senate; and there is considerable debate about the balance of managerialism/corporatism versus collegiality/shared‐values in their governance and management. HEIs and government/agencies, including fair access to higher education Government finances HEIs as private autonomous entities and monitors their use of taxpayers' money via various agencies: the funding councils (see R v Universities Funding...

heritage legislation

heritage legislation   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
323 words

...is made up of a complex set ofinternational conventions, national Acts, and administrative guidelines and requirements at the sub‐national and local levels. There are also a plethora of governmental, quasi‐governmental, and private organizations which organize, manage, and monitor heritage initiatives. There is no one regime of heritage legislation. Because of this complexity, the best way to approach the available resources is by heritage area: archaeological, architectural, cultural, environmental, and natural sources and areas of heritage are each...

vocational legal education

vocational legal education   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,500 words

...is an initial or academic stage, usually a law degree introducing legal doctrines and theory across a wide span of law. The ‘vocational stage’ follows, introducing more of the knowledge and skills required by practitioners. The requirements are similar, though not identical, throughout the British Isles. This entry sets out the current methods and structures of vocational legal education in England and Wales. In England and Wales, the vocational stage begins with a year‐long course, with content and delivery specified and monitored by the Law Society (for...

legal profession, impact of information technology on

legal profession, impact of information technology on   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,027 words

...online discussion forums as mechanisms for sharing information with one another. Where the courts are suitably equipped, judges may also have access to case management systems, which enable them to monitor and progress the cases before them. Courtrooms are increasingly equipped with IT, including systems for the display of documents and exhibits, large monitors and wall screens, computer assisted real‐time transcription, video‐linking for remote evidence, wireless networks with internet access, and tools (from computer graphics to virtual reality) for the...

émigré lawyers

émigré lawyers   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,457 words

...work as legal practitioners in the UK. Their fates are generally less well documented than those of their academic colleagues. Best known amongst the practitioners are three German émigrés, Francis Mann , Rudolf Graupner (both solicitors), and Ernst Cohn (a barrister), and the Hungarian, Andrew Martin (born Neugröschel), also a barrister. All four were also prolific writers of textbooks, commentaries, or articles and thus also count on the academic side; two of them were even made professors in England (Ernst Cohn at King's College London, Andrew Martin...

Agostini v. Felton

Agostini v. Felton   Reference library

Kermit L. Hall

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
797 words

...programs conducted by public school teachers to be free of any religious connection. Third, O'Connor found that school boards were competent to erect administrative guidelines that would ensure that teachers performed in a neutral fashion without resorting to excessive monitoring and hence an entanglement of church and state. Finally, according to O'Connor, there was no reason to believe that the parents of secular school students would conclude that the presence of public school teachers in sectarian classrooms meant that the New York City Board of...

Agostini v. Felton

Agostini v. Felton   Quick reference

The Oxford Guide to United States Supreme Court Decisions (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law
Length:
796 words

...programs conducted by public school teachers to be free of any religious connection. Third, O’Connor found that school boards were competent to erect administrative guidelines that would ensure that teachers performed in a neutral fashion without resorting to excessive monitoring and hence an entanglement of church and state. Finally, according to O’Connor, there was no reason to believe that the parents of secular school students would conclude that the presence of public school teachers in sectarian classrooms meant that the New York City Board of...

Libel

Libel   Reference library

Norman L. Rosenberg

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
1,471 words

...a clearinghouse for monitoring lawsuits and legislative changes. Although they lacked such organization, critics of the media countered with claims that libel law reforms were leaving public officials and ordinary citizens at the mercy of irresponsible journalism. Meanwhile, commentary on the new doctrines, and proposals for further simplifying them, became a cottage industry. According to one tally, between 1973 and 1983 there were 718 reported lawsuits and nearly 450 law review articles about libel law. For their part, several academic studies suggested...

Regulation

Regulation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
5,497 words

...of farmers, merchants, and shippers and to limits the U.S. Supreme Court placed on the states’ authority to control railroad rates. The five-member ICC was given authority to prevent pooling and price discrimination as well as to require that rates be “reasonable and just.” Monitoring the thousands of rates set by railroads throughout the country without clear legislative standards of what constituted “discrimination” or “just” was an imposing task for a small, inexperienced regulatory body. Moreover, the ICC suffered defeat after defeat in the Supreme...

Criminal Punishments

Criminal Punishments   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
4,270 words

...out if the defendant complies with certain conditions). The requirements of probation or a conditional sentence may include periodic reports to a probation officer or other supervisor; limitations on travel, place of residence, or associates; home detention and/or electronic monitoring; abstinence from liquor or drugs; periodic tests for drug or alcohol use; restitution to the victim; community-service work; participation in educational, counseling, or medical treatment programs;and refraining from further criminal behavior. Persons convicted of crimes may...

Religion

Religion   Reference library

Frederick Mark Gedicks; and Thomas C. Berg

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
7,644 words

... therefore upheld the constitutionality of the Equal Access Act of 1984 , which gave student groups a statutory right to meet. The sessions were student initiated; faculty members took no active part and attended only as safety monitors; and many other clubs met during the activity period, including intramural sports, music, academic, and social clubs. Based on these facts, the Court held that any advancement or endorsement of religion came from the individual students, not from the school. Later decisions applied the equal access principle to increasingly...

Corporations

Corporations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
4,228 words

...Where a corporate shareholder owns another corporation, the corporate shareholder owner is referred to as the “parent” corporation, and the owned entity is called a “subsidiary” corporation. The shareholders elect the Board of Directors, who have the responsibility of monitoring the affairs of the corporation and the conduct of the Officers, who are selected by the Board. The Officers are charged with the day-to-day running of the corporation. In a general partnership, every partner shares the responsibility for the conduct of the entity, but in a...

Prisons and Jails

Prisons and Jails   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
5,615 words

...the military, the government, and the private sector. Demand for prison products accelerated during World War I. The income generated by inmate labor, however, was not sufficient to cover the rising costs of operating correctional facilities. Without independent oversight and monitoring, the convict labor system gradually eroded into corruption and bribery. Moreover, private industry soon complained about being forced to compete with prison industries, which had a clear advantage due to the very low inmate wages. The emerging labor unions also opposed cheap...

Technology and Law

Technology and Law   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
4,131 words

...tools and resources are being provided for guiding behavior and resolving conflict. Any new technology is a moving target in the sense that early forms and applications of the technology are never final forms. It is for this reason that regulation is difficult, and ongoing monitoring of any new regulatory process is necessary. The appearance of new means for working with information also turns the law into something “moving” and changing. Change in the law will not be as fast as in many other institutions, but the depth of change may be as great. We may not...

Federalism

Federalism   Reference library

Harry N. Scheiber

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
9,538 words

...police and racist mobs. Not only did desegregation require dispatch of federal troops and marshals to school grounds and university campuses, as happened at Little Rock, Arkansas, and elsewhere; the desegregation process also drew the federal courts into a role of continuous monitoring and active supervision of school boards' policies and actions. This new role the federal district judges—a role historically comparable only to their supervision of railroad bankruptcies in an earlier era—became the model for a routinized “institutional‐management” function for...

History of the Court

History of the Court   Reference library

William M. Wiecek, Michael Les Benedict, Melvin I. Urofsky, and Stephen L. Wasby

The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Law
Length:
28,309 words

...Implicit in this reasoning was the crucial assumption that the Constitution is a law, to be administered by courts like any other law. But that idea produced Marbury' s central ambiguity: When exercising the power of judicial review, does the Court perform a unique function of monitoring the conformity of the other branches to the constitutional mandate, or is it merely doing what courts normally do—that is, applying a law to resolve a dispute? That ambiguity persists to the present day. Marshall also suggested a distinction that assumed great significance in...

Statutory Interpretation and Legislation

Statutory Interpretation and Legislation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
3,433 words

...new institutionalism asks what we might call “second-order” questions: What effect will judicial second-guessing of administrative interpretations have on the ability of agencies to carry out their mandates? On the ability of legislatures to monitor and control policy evolution? To answer these questions, legal academics are drawing from descriptive models of the political process, empirical evidence illuminating the operation and interaction of the various institutions, and case studies of the operation of the legal process. At an even more general level,...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
1,755 words
Illustration(s):
1

...In addition to legislative activity, judicial activity—first in the Imperial Court and later, after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany, in the Federal Court of Justice—has played a large role in the development of private law. The Federal Constitutional Court monitors compliance with the constitution. In addition to legal interpretation and development by judges, Germany has profited from a systematic legal scholarship which grew out of the continuation of the tradition of Roman law established in the Middle Ages. [ See also European...

Lawyers

Lawyers   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
7,849 words
Illustration(s):
1

...has enjoyed considerable autonomy in policing its monopoly and monitoring disciplinary processes. Yet no occupational group, however well intentioned, can set aside its own interests on matters where income, status, and power are at issue. The challenge for the twenty-first century lies in reconciling the profession's need for independence from government control with its need for public accountability. This, too, is an issue on which all Americans have a stake. [ See also Academics and Education and Training, subentry on United States .]...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
6,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Legal System: A Theory of Law Reform and Social Change . New York: Academic Press, 1978. Handler, Joel F. , and Yeheskel Hasenfeld . Blame Welfare, Ignore Poverty and Inequality . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Handler, Joel F. , and Ellen Jane Hollingsworth . The “Deserving Poor”: A Study of Welfare Administration . Chicago, Ill.: Markham, 1971. Handler, Joel F. , Ellen Jane Hollingsworth , and Howard S. Erlanger . Lawyers and the Pursuit of Legal Rights . New York: Academic Press, 1978. Healy, Melissa . “Welfare Rolls Fall to Half of ’96...

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