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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

brining

brining   Reference library

Timothy P. Guinee

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,177 words

..., vol. 1: General Aspects . 3d ed., edited by Patrick F. Fox , Paul L. H. McSweeney , Timothy M. Cogan , and T. P. Guinee , eds., pp. 207–259. London: Elsevier Academic, 2004. Guinee, T. P. , and B. J. Sutherland . “Salting of Cheese.” In Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences , vol. 1, 2d ed., edited by John W. Fuquay , Paul F. Fox , and P. L. H. McSweeney , pp. 595–606. London: Academic, 2011. International Dairy Federation . The Importance of Salt in the Manufacture and Ripening of Cheese . Special Issue 1401. Brussels: International Dairy Federation...

alcoholic strength and measurement

alcoholic strength and measurement   Reference library

Gary Spedding

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,058 words

...is denoted in degrees Plato (°P) and winemakers refer to it as degrees Brix. See balling scale , hydrometer , plato gravity scale , and specific gravity . As fermentation continues, the sugars in the extract are consumed and the SG of the liquid drops. The brewer monitors the progress of fermentation by following the changing SG (or Plato) value until it reaches a terminal value (the maximum degree of fermentation). However, as sugars are consumed the alcohol content rises and the “extract” in the beer is not read correctly and is regarded as the...

Hong Kong

Hong Kong   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
14,550 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 1996 . Less apparent changes can also be seen in the growing social tolerance of prostitution and sexually explicit materials. To live by the income of prostitution is illegal in Hong Kong, but patronizing a prostitute is not. Sexually explicit materials are subject to the monitoring and rating by the Obscene and Indecent Articles Tribunal, but only after the materials are published and distributed. Publishers are penalized only if they are found to have produced sexually explicit materials that are obscene or indecent, and distributed this material to...

fermentation

fermentation   Reference library

George Philliskirk

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,279 words

...to flocculate. This is necessary at the end of fermentation to facilitate yeast separation, but if applied too early, it can cause incomplete fermentation and leave excessive levels of diacetyl in the finished beer. See diacetyl . The progress of the fermentation is usually monitored by following the specific gravity drop and/or increase in alcohol content. Yeast growth and alcohol production deplete the sugar concentration and the pH falls as nitrogenous materials are used up and the yeast secretes organic acids. Flavor compounds are generated during yeast...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
37,226 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from registration of births in England and Wales 1837–1983 (Series FM1, no. 13). London: HMSO. Office of Population Census and Surveys (OPCS). Monitor-FM1 and birth statistics series for 1992 and 1993 . London: HMSO. Office of Population Census and Surveys. 1994. 1992-based national population projections (Series PP2, no. 19). London: HMSO. Office of Population Census and Surveys. 1994. Monitor. AB94/ 1 . London: Government Statistical Service. Owen, G. 2003 (February 21). Government urges under-16s to experiment with oral sex. TheLondon Times ....

Thailand

Thailand   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
37,958 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that characterizes commercial sex in Thailand today. ( End of comment by R. Bishop and L. S. Robinson )] Government Surveillance of Commercial Sex Workers A system of monitoring sex workers has been in place because the government has long implicated them for the spread of STDs ( Rojanapithayakorn & Hanenberg 1996 ). Most “direct” sex workers in Thailand are under the STD monitoring system, which the Department of Communicable Disease Control ( DCDC ) has adapted over a period of 40 years. There are hundreds of government STD/AIDS clinics all over...

Ukraine

Ukraine   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
21,522 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the late initiation of prophylactic work inside the IDU group, and the lack of attention to such work by the official authorities and establishments. The period between 1990 and 2000 was characterized by a sharp increase in drug dependency. In 1990 , narcotic services were monitoring 22,466 individuals, while by the beginning of 2001 , there were 75,489 clients. The experts estimate that the real number of drug users can be five to ten times higher. Nearly 95% of the registered drug users are actually IDUs. The rates of the HIV/AIDS-epidemic spread in...

Spain

Spain   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,020 words
Illustration(s):
1

...diagnostic evaluation, counseling, and the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. 12. Sex Research and Advanced Professional Education A. Institutes and Programs for Research and Education Sexuality research in the academic environment has been marginal and received little support. From the political transition of the late 1970s to the present, the academic gaps in this type of research have been paralleled by the proliferation of news of sexual attitudes and specific sexual practices in magazines and the daily press that is fragmentary, sensationalist, and endowed...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
22,090 words
Illustration(s):
1

...from other countries, and with the input of technical assistance from foreign experts.” [The “UNESCO project” was formally initiated in October 1996 . Its first step was a sociological monitoring, an attempt to assess sexual values, attitudes, and information levels of children, parents, and teachers of a few pilot schools on a strictly voluntary basis. Similar monitoring was also planned for the next stages of the experiment. Unfortunately, without consulting the experts, Ministry of Education officials announced the commencement of this sensitive...

Iran

Iran   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
16,571 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the entire household when a young girl is unable to recite her prayers. This is often the signal for parents to conclude marriage arrangements, so that the girl can be wed before her second menstruation. Intercourse between married members of the household is similarly monitored. Conception or failure to conceive is similarly apparent to all. The approximate time of any woman's ovulation can be informally calculated by interested parties. Wet dreams and visits to houses of prostitution can be surmised by the family in the same way, by watching who does...

Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles

Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
26,260 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Care for HIV-positive IV-drug users is often complicated by aggravated addiction behavior, which often makes these patients difficult to deal and make appointments with. Municipal health centers and general practitioners in the big cities, and local clinics for the addicted, monitor a substantial percentage of IV-drug users. This includes health education, education on HIV prevention, assessment of physical condition, and often also the prescription of methadone, a heroin substitute. A needle/syringe exchange program is an important part of prevention....

Ireland

Ireland   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,720 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1999 that 41.6% of the reported 295 cases were among injection drug users, 22.7% among homosexuals, 18.8% among heterosexuals/unspecified risk, and the remainder (16.9%) was made up of hemophiliacs, children, and other categories. [The progress of HIV infection and AIDS is monitored through the National System of Surveillance in Ireland. The available data include the AIDS reporting system and the laboratory information on HIV Surveillance. The AIDS reporting system is based on clinical events that are reported by the regional AIDS coordinators to the...

Cuba

Cuba   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
20,888 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the procedure by a gynecology specialist, a nurse, and anesthesia personnel previously trained in infantile and juvenile gynecology. • Give the adolescent, after being discharged, an appointment for infantile and juvenile gynecology consultation for follow-up, counseling, and monitoring of birth-control use in the infantile and juvenile gynecology consultation. This work methodology has been implemented nationwide since at least 1998 . An outstanding drop of complications has been achieved with this procedure, mainly when it is repeated. The use of...

Outer Space and Antarctica

Outer Space and Antarctica   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
19,114 words
Illustration(s):
2

...has not been done. Information about whether women have experienced clitoral erections and vaginal lubrication has not been forthcoming, although the homologous nature of this aspect of the sexual response cycle would support the conclusion that they have. NASA could be easily monitoring this while the astronauts slept. One may conjecture that both female and male astronauts, when they are not asleep, would perceive a difference in their genital responses from their normal preflight experiences. Using Masters and Johnson's ( 1966 ) four-phase model of the human...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
61,965 words
Illustration(s):
1

...almost invariably occurs within specific academic disciplines (e.g., history, sociology, psychology, women's studies, philosophy, medicine, epidemiology and public health, education, family studies, criminology, etc.) rather than in a university department of sexology. The Department of Sexology at the University of Quebec at Montreal is the only department of sexology in Canada. Founded in 1969 , it offers Bachelor's and Master's programs in human sexuality taught in French by approximately 20 full-time academic staff representing many fields of...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...years, and the arts have moved to include lesbian, gay, and bisexual subjects in other than classically stereotypic and tragic roles. Research and commentary regarding gay, lesbian, and bisexual issues in the academic disciplines has become acceptable, and the result has been a concomitant exponential increase in published works in all the academic disciplines. There are even a few departments in universities specifically devoted to studies of lesbian, gay, and bisexual issues. In all the arts and literature, there are more and more instances of openly...

Bahrain

Bahrain   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
35,139 words
Illustration(s):
1

...source in Arabic describes the herbs used in the Gulf and methods of treatment which were brought in from India, Syria, Sudan, and Egypt. Some individuals also request hormone shots from their physicians. Testosterone therapy should be avoided as much as possible; if used, then monitoring of the prostate is needed ( E. Amin 1984 , 30). Alcoholic beverages are freely available in Bahrain through retail liquor outlets, hotel bars, and restaurants unlike other Gulf countries. Liquor is served openly to Bahrainis, expatriates, and tourists. Liquor has not always...

Argentina

Argentina   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
28,310 words
Illustration(s):
1

...healthcare. At the initiative of some doctors, and with the support of pharmaceutical companies, oral contraceptives are now be given free to poor women, who, in some cases, sell them to buy bread. There are no programs to give advice on contraceptive technologies and monitor their use. ( End of update by S. Kamenetzky )] C. Abortion Everybody who practices gynecology in Argentina knows that abortion is widely used by women of all social classes to end unwanted pregnancies. This happens despite the injunction against abortion in the Argentine Criminal...

Austria

Austria   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,557 words
Illustration(s):
1

...such provisions before. The heterosexual age of consent in Austria has been 14 since 1803 , and for two centuries, heterosexual youth has been completely unprotected against such offenses. LGBT activists, therefore, view the new provisions with great skepticism and will closely monitor whether they are applied only or mainly against gays and lesbians. [Despite the repeal of the old provisions, cases have been heard in court under the old, discriminatory laws. The European Court of Human Rights made known, in January 2003 , that Austria was being fined for...

Asian Americans on Television

Asian Americans on Television   Reference library

Alison Yeh Cheung and Kent A. Ono

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Asian Americans. 23 Scholarship on the representation of Asian Americans in cinema, focusing on television as opposed to films, is useful in tracing Asian American representation due to the relative production frequency of television episodes. Darrell Hamamoto’s groundbreaking Monitored Peril ( 1994 ) engages Asian American studies beyond media and communication and also takes an interdisciplinary historical and sociological approach to the study of TV. 24 Hamamoto traces the historical archives of the representation of Asian Americans on TV, demonstrating an...

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