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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Materialist Criticism

Materialist Criticism   Reference library

Roland Boer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Biblical Interpretation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,175 words

...designating texts, culture, religion, and ideology, and the latter the means and relations of economic production. As dynamic concepts, they should be understood in terms of trains and railways, where infrastructure is the complex network of tracks, stations, and electronic monitoring, and superstructure is the rolling stock itself. Superstructure: Literature and Culture. At this level, the impetus for materialist literary readings in biblical criticism has come from Terry Eagleton ( 1991 , 1996 , 2006 [ 1976 ]) and Fredric Jameson ( 1981 ,...

1 and 2 Kings

1 and 2 Kings   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
13,163 words
Illustration(s):
3

... 29 (1998): 1043–1059. Nelson, Richard D. The Double Redaction of the Deuteronomistic History. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 18. Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press, 1981. Noth, Martin . The Deuteronomistic History. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament: Supplement Series 15. Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press, 1981. English translation of Überlieferungsgeschichtliche Studien , 2d ed., pp. 1–110, published in 1957. Noy, Dov . “Elijah. In Jewish Folklore.” In Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 6, cols. 638–640...

Traditional Ecological Knowledge among Aboriginal Peoples in Canada

Traditional Ecological Knowledge among Aboriginal Peoples in Canada   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,705 words

...learning. Existing academic literature regarding TEK continues along this line of thinking, privileging the components of indigenous knowledge that conform well to Western ideals over the spiritual basis of indigenous knowledge. Aboriginal spiritual traditions, beliefs and values form the foundation of traditional knowledge, and are completely integrated into every aspect of TEK and indigenous thought. Much of the TEK literature published in applied scientific journals and publications is written by non-Aboriginal scientists and academics and has focused on...

Tanzania, United Republic of

Tanzania, United Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,374 words

...of Tanzanian art for foreign galleries, monitoring standards of Makonde sculpture and encouraging the purchase of wood-carvings by hotels and visitor centers. Local and international exhibitions were also organized by such societies in Tanzania as the Society of East African Artists, the Tanzania Arts Society, the Tanzanian Crafts Council and the Tanzania Society of African Culture. These bodies often used temporary exhibition spaces provided by hotels and foreign embassies. In contrast to training in the non-academic popular and traditional arts provided by...

Cosmology

Cosmology   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,668 words

...that have shamanism have ritual cycles to engage individual and collective responsibility to monitor the state of biosocial systems and to redress socio-environmental imbalances. Such individual and group behavior is regulated by cosmological normativity to inculcate environmental resource use and conservation as part of the “proper way” to live in this life and be in the afterlife. Through wise, dignified and austere livelihoods involving the daily monitoring of thoughts, words and actions which reiterate communal life and sound eco-system use, this...

Islam and Environmentalism in Iran

Islam and Environmentalism in Iran   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,956 words

...( IRSEN ) is an organization founded by academics and scientists. It is part of the multinational Caspian Environment Programme ( CEP ), and studies among other things pollution point sources, wildlife, and aquatic systems in the Caspian region, with the aim of advising the government on environmental policy issues. More recently a related organization, The Iranian Association of Environmental Health, was established with a specific focus on health concerns. Both organizations have carried out various projects to monitor water, soil, and air pollution...

Manser, Bruno

Manser, Bruno (1954–2000)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,957 words

...Manser, Bruno . Tong Tana: Journal on Rainforests, Indigenous Rights and the Timber Trade . Basel, Switzerland: Bruno Manser Fonds, 1998. High Stakes: The Need to Control Transnational Logging Companies – A Malaysian Case Study . World Rainforest Movement (Uruguay) and Forests Monitor Ltd. (U.K.), 1998. Snow, Keith Harmon . “ Bruno Manser: Man Who Has Disappeared. ” Kyoto Journal 53 (March 2003). See also: Penan Hunter-Gatherers (Borneo)...

Righteousness

Righteousness   Reference library

James Dunn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,808 words

...expected to execute righteousness ( 1 Kgs 10:9 ; 2 Chr 9:8 ; Ps 72:2 ; Prov 31:9 ; Isa 32:1 ), and it was naturally assumed that God judges in or with righteousness ( Pss 9:8 ; 50:6 ; 96:13 ; 98:9 ; Jer 11:20 ). It was particularly important that the exemplars and monitors of the social bundle of relationships—the king and the judge—should act righteously, that is, with justice and impartiality (e.g., Exod 23:7 ; Ps 82:2–4 ; Prov 17:15 ; Isa 5:23 ). A standard test case for righteousness was how the poor were treated (e.g., Pss 72:2 ; ...

Education

Education   Reference library

Nimat Hafez Barazangi, Donald Malcolm Reid, Dietrich Reetz, Akbar S. Ahmed, Celene Ayat Lizzio, and Shenila S. Khoja-Moolji

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,601 words

...contrast to the curricula found in secular, modernist, or government-sponsored schools. The tensions created by Westernization in Muslim societies became fertile grounds for the mushrooming of such religious schools in rural as well as urban areas. Without a central authority monitoring these schools, the curriculum and pedagogies came to be, and remain, driven by the local religious authorities or by religious functionaries who volunteer oversight. These movements to revive traditional Islam were predominantly led by men, which had detrimental effects on...

Peace

Peace   Reference library

Willard M. Swartley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion
Length:
4,547 words
Illustration(s):
2

...institutions divesting from investments in South Africa are notable “movements” inspired by the biblical peace and justice vision. Christian Peacemaker Teams, originating from Ron Sider’s 1984 plea at the Mennonite World Conference in Strasbourg, France, have volunteers who monitor injustices in numerous countries, observing and seeking to obstruct violent engagements (e.g., Israeli demolition of Palestinian homes). Other peacemaking developments attempt to end discrimination between Anglos and native populations dispersed by colonializing, in which native...

Hermeneutics, Biblical

Hermeneutics, Biblical   Reference library

Ellen T. Charry

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Theology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion
Length:
8,665 words

...example, with respect to the ambiguous Romans 10:4 (“Christ is the end of the law”), van Buren argues that telos as abrogation of the law applies only to Gentiles so that Jewish faithfulness to God through Judaism, as Augustine taught, is warranted on scriptural grounds. Monitoring Hermeneutics. To illustrate the intimate, often un-self-conscious ebb and flow of exegesis and eisegesis in biblical interpretation for the well-being of ecclesial communities, I have traced the reception history of the doctrine of election implied in Jonah through some themes...

South Asia Theological Research Institute

South Asia Theological Research Institute   Reference library

Samson Prabhakar

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...thus led to the establishment of the South Asia Theological Research Institute (SATHRI) in 1989 at Bangalore, which now functions under the guidance of a Committee for Research. As the research wing of the Senate of Serampore College (University), SATHRI coordinates, monitors, and guides formal research at the doctoral level leading to the degree of Doctor of Theology (D.Th.) under the guidance of the Committee for Research. With the guidance and expertise of about 105 resource persons, drawn from the various theological colleges, Roman Catholic...

Palestine Archaeological Museum

Palestine Archaeological Museum   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...eventually, toward the end of the Mandate period in 1948 , placed under the direction of an international board of trustees composed of academics and civil servants from France, Britain, the United States, Sweden, the Hebrew University, and surrounding Arab countries. After the fall of Jerusalem in the War of Independence and its eventual partition into East (Jordanian) and West (Israeli) in 1948 , mutual Jewish/Arab academic interest at the Palestine Archaeological Museum came to an end. Despite the international board of trustees appointed to oversee the...

Modernization and Development

Modernization and Development   Reference library

Dominic T. Bocci

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,829 words

...no longer imprisoned in their homes…. The fight against terrorism is also a fight for the rights of women” (2002). The events of September 11, 2001, exhumed many colonial arguments and impressions that the Muslim world is backwardly un-modern and in severe need of development. Monitoring the status of modernization and development, the Arab Human Development Reports (AHDRs), independent reports published by the United Nations Development Programme, detail the economic and political weaknesses of much of the Muslim world. The first report was published in 2002...

Fatayat Nahdlatul ʿUlamāʾ

Fatayat Nahdlatul ʿUlamāʾ   Reference library

Ala’ i Nadjib

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,288 words

...with Fatayat NU, including Asma Barlas, Margot Badran, Amina Rasul, Ziba Mir Hosseini, Vivien Wie, and Ahmed Ragaʾa Abdel Hamid Ragab, among others. In addition, Fatayat has contributed to Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women's (CEDAW) monitoring and overseeing of the recognition of women's rights in Indonesia, particularly by working to raise awareness of women's rights in Indonesian society. It often finds that women are aware only of their duties, not their rights, particularly in the domestic arena. Fatayat NU initiated a...

Women's Entrepreneurship

Women's Entrepreneurship   Reference library

Roksana Bahramitash and Roksana Bahramitash

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,299 words

...Path: The Economic Answer to Terrorism . New York: Harper and Row, 1989. Diana Project International . “Diana Conference for Women Entrepreneurs.” http://womenentrepreneursgrowglobal.org/tag/diana-project/. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). “GEM 2010 Report: Women Entrepreneurs Worldwide.” In Global Entrepreneurship Monitor , edited by D. J. Kelley , C. G. Brush , P. Greene , and Y. Litovsky . Babson Park, Mass.: Babson College and the Global Entrepreneurship Research Association, 2011. http://www.gemconsortium.org/docs/download/768. Goldin, C. ...

Religious Regulation in India

Religious Regulation in India   Reference library

Kristina M. Teater and Laura Dudley Jenkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,422 words

...Regulation in India Introduction Freedom of religion is a constitutional right in India, but this religiously diverse democracy regulates religion in several ways, including enforcing religious personal laws, regulating religious minority educational institutions, monitoring conversions, limiting religious appeals during political campaigns, and outlawing acts that insult religious beliefs. The 42nd constitutional amendment in 1976 added the word “secular” to the Indian constitution, which provides a distinctive model of religion-state relations and...

Religious Regulation in China

Religious Regulation in China   Reference library

Lawrence C. Reardon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,485 words

...the end of 2018 . They in turn rely on religious “patriotic” associations established between 1954 and 1957 to manage the five officially recognized religions at the state, provincial, and local levels ( Potter, 2003 ). These Party-dominated organizations work together to monitor and regulate all religious activities among Han Chinese and ethnic minorities. Religious Regulations in Totalitarian China Following the advice of their Soviet mentors, eastern European and Chinese Communist elites pursued a comprehensive Stalinist paradigm to establish a...

Religious Frames: Falun Gong in China

Religious Frames: Falun Gong in China   Reference library

Junpeng Li

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
5,407 words

...but unsuccessfully, applied to the Ethnic Affairs Committee of the NPC, the Buddhist Association of China, and the United Front Work Department of the CCP Central Committee for registration as a “nonreligious Falun Gong academic mass association,” a “nonreligious Buddhist cultural group,” and a “nonreligious Falun Gong academic association,” respectively. Falun Gong practitioners did not take the attacks lightly. Immediately after the Guangming Daily incident, they launched a letter-writing campaign with thousands of letters of protest sent to the...

Religious Regulation in Iran

Religious Regulation in Iran   Reference library

Mehran Tamadonfar and Roman B. Lewis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,505 words

...guide followers of other legitimate religious minorities, Sunnis are entitled to follow their own canons and engage in religious rituals and education within the limits of the law. They are, however, subject to limitations imposed on non-Muslim religious minorities including monitoring of their religious practices, prohibition of the right to proselytize, and denial of right to hold the highest positions of power in the republic including the supreme leadership (Article 109) and the presidency of the country (Article 115). As a sharp distinction from the...

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