You are looking at 1-20 of 24 entries  for:

  • All: academic monitoring x
clear all

View:

Overview

academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Cohen, Morris Raphael

Cohen, Morris Raphael (1880–1947)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
1,518 words

...to all possible content and the relations of compatibility and incompatibility were as real as any other relations in the world. The natural world is neither unknown nor a mere collection of particulars, but a complex of things-in-relation whose structure can be discerned by monitored reasoning. For Cohen, nature is a relational system and the intelligible nature of any actual existent is constituted by its logical relations, its place in the system. Its nature is the group of invariant characters it involves and these characters can involve several different...

Gombrich, Ernst Hans

Gombrich, Ernst Hans (1909–2001)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,024 words

...worked as a research assistant for, and then collaborator with, the museum curator and Freudian analyst Ernst Kris . He emigrated to England and joined the Warburg Institute in London as a research assistant in 1936 . During World War II he was employed by the BBC as a radio monitor. After the war he rejoined the Warburg Institute as senior research fellow ( 1946–8 ), lecturer ( 1948–54 ), reader ( 1954–6 ), special lecturer ( 1956–9 ) and Director ( 1959–76 ). He was also Slade Professor of Fine Art, University of Oxford ( 1950–53 ); Durning-Lawrence...

Eddy, Mary Baker

Eddy, Mary Baker (1821–1910)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,310 words

...but eclectic grassroots thinker who drew over a period of many years from multiple sources in order to construct her world view. Eddy was not part of the lineage of male academic and ministerial philosophers who have shaped the outlines and insights of mainstream American philosophical thought. Concepts like philosophical idealism were not available to her by means of traditional, academic, mentor trajectories but found their way into her thought more indirectly, often filtered through the medium of popular culture. A further difficulty in thinking about her...

pragmatism

pragmatism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,255 words

...effects’ or ‘observational results’—so that for him the meaning of a proposition is determined by the essentially positivist criterion of its observable consequences. And, moving beyond this, Peirce also taught that pragmatic effectiveness constitutes a quality-control monitor of human cognition—though here again the issue is that of scientific praxis and the standard of efficacy pivoting on the issue of specifically predictive success. Peirce developed his pragmatism in opposition to idealism, seeing that the test of applicative success can lead...

Social Sciences and Philosophy

Social Sciences and Philosophy   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,270 words

...(e.g. Graunt and Petty's ‘bills of mortality’, or collections of mortality figures in London to be used by the Crown to monitor threats of new plague outbreaks) – was specifically aimed at supporting Acts of Parliament, such as the 1834 Poor Law Act. This in turn generated a whole host of institutions, such as the Statistical Societies, which were quite independent of universities (the modern division of social science in academic departments being mainly an American phenomenon, which came to completion much later, by the time of World War I). On the...

Alston, William Payne

Alston, William Payne (1921–)   Reference library

The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
2,810 words

...in much the way that ordinary perceptual beliefs about our immediate environment can owe their justification directly to mundane perceptual experience and not to arguments. What is distinctive about Alston's model is the notion of a doxastic practice, a socially learned, monitored, and reinforced constellation of dispositions and habits, each of which yields a certain belief from certain input. Two aspects of doxastic practices are fundamental. The most basic doxastic practices are the sole access to a certain stretch of reality; for example, the practice...

London University

London University   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,665 words

...annum, a requirement intended to ensure that they would be properly dedicating their time to their academic work and not be under pressure to find other employment. The University of London retains the right to approve all higher academic appointments (readers and professors) even though these appointments exist only in a constituent institution. Another reform of 1900 was the introduction of boards of studies in various subject areas, concerned with monitoring and maintaining the standards of the degrees being awarded in the university's name. From that date...

Newman, John Henry

Newman, John Henry (1801–90)   Reference library

The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
4,586 words

...based on the evidence it is correct to conclude that so-and-so is the case, to holding that so-and-so is the case. The step from entertaining a proposition as a conclusion to assenting to it involves more than reasoning. Conscience plays an important part. Not only does it monitor acts of reasoning to challenge prejudice and bias in the determination of what is evidence and the weight given to it in the processes of reasoning, it also informs the individual in certain cases that she or he has a moral duty to make a commitment and to do it on the basis of...

Postcolonialism

Postcolonialism   Reference library

Lucrezia Cippitelli

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,663 words

...leading to the struggle against empires. Postcolonialism and Academic Criticism. The late 1970s and early 1980s mark the incursion of these radical perspectives, outcomes of the independence struggles all over the world, into the Western university system. The academic world was until then dominated by European knowledge, organized into specialized disciplines and aligned with the idea of progress and Modernity. The arrival of academics from all over the Global South in the main Western academic institutions, mainly Anglo-Saxon, generated a new context of...

Television

Television   Reference library

Horace Newcomb

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,297 words

...educated generations of faculty, forged curricula, and filled academic journals. Humanistic approaches to television were fugitive in nature, often appearing in general readership magazines such as the Nation or Saturday Review . Critical, analytic work focused on textual analysis, aesthetic evaluation, or interpretive studies did not appear in academic journals, even in the increasingly available venues devoted to the study of film. Film studies had begun to find a place in academic settings during this same period, largely because “film as art”...

Hypertext

Hypertext   Reference library

George P. Landow

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,423 words

...be rapidly duplicated, transmitted, and searched or otherwise manipulated. This electronic coding also permits the creation of the link. Reading a fully hypertextualized version of the present essay, one encounters it on (or by means of) some electronic device—usually a computer monitor or projector—and, at points where links indicate the availability of additional information, one finds some sign of that fact: differently colored text, underlining, icons, changes in the on-screen appearance of one’s pointing device, or the like. Using a touch screen, computer...

Synaesthesia

Synaesthesia   Reference library

John Gage

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,590 words

...that year. The heyday of the scientific study of synaesthesia was between about 1880 and 1930 ; it has only recently become accessible and interesting to neurologists and experimental psychologists, because of the development of more exact and sophisticated techniques of monitoring the activity of parts of the brain ( Cytowic, 1993 ; Harrison and Baron-Cohen, 1994 ). It can be no accident that the earliest phase of intense scientific interest in synaesthesia coincides with the European Symbolist movement for, although there have been reported instances...

Performance Art

Performance Art   Reference library

Kelly Dennis and Amelia Jones

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,607 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in a sink full of water until he choked. The audience witnessed Burden’s near drowning via a series of monitors on stage; Burden himself, however, was only a short distance from the audience, concealed only by a row of lockers. The audience could hear Burden choke and gasp nearby while witnessing the event on the monitor, and they were thus denied the illusory comfort of the fully mediated distance television appears to offer. The use of video monitors in Gina Pane’s Money, Meat, Fire ( 1971 ) and in the context of other self-abusive, “live” performances...

Experimentalism

Experimentalism   Reference library

Benjamin Piekut, George E. Lewis, and Jeffrey Skoller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,296 words

...through the inherent mutability of the electronic signal that has no fixed image trace that can be seen or projected, but rather a signal that can be transformed in multiple ways through a series of processors from video camera to video playback machines and finally display monitors. In this sense there is no inherent quality to video since it can be transformed through signal processing into any kind of image. Spielmann and other video theorists have argued that, unlike film, video lacks an essential imagistic specificity that has defined artistic media in...

Improvisation

Improvisation   Reference library

Philip A. Alperson, Garry L. Hagberg, and George E. Lewis

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,106 words

...be as little precomposed pattern material as possible—no prearranged sequences, scales, chord models, dynamics, timbres, motives, rhythm patterns, or other material. At the same time, improvisors are interested in both processes and product, since the practice involves close monitoring of outcomes in a recursive rather than simply iterative way. One finds, following Andrew Pickering and Karen Barad, an understanding of agency as an emergent improvisative achievement of a specific interaction, rather than an essential or intrinsic attribute of subjects....

Cavell, Stanley

Cavell, Stanley   Reference library

Timothy Gould and William Rothman

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,141 words

...considering the issues of form as existing apart from its designs on a possible audience, evolving as a mere end in itself. Cavell has presented treatments of such topics as intention (Cavell, 1969 ), expression ( 1979 ), metaphor, and representation (Cavell, 1969 ). He has monitored the shifting ground between criticism and its objects. More recently, his work on Shakespeare, film, and opera has again led him back to a further consideration of the notion of form. As early as Cavell’s ( 1969 , pp. 180–212) essay “Music Discomposed,” his work mounts a...

subliminal perception

subliminal perception   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,175 words
Illustration(s):
2

...suggest that, prior to awareness of a visual stimulus which is gradually increasing in brightness, the brain may analyse the latter's meaning and, as a result, modify its own level of arousal to hasten or retard awareness of the information that it carries. That the brain monitors and analyses subliminal stimuli receives support from many comparable investigations. Thus, emotional words, presented below threshold to the eye, have been found to change auditory sensitivity, and vice versa. By the same token, during binocular rivalry, in which the subject...

SPARKS, Jared

SPARKS, Jared (1789–1866)   Reference library

Shannon E. Duffy

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Church of Baltimore. The sermon delivered at his ordination by William Ellery CHANNING aroused intense controversy with Calvinists such as Moses STUART . From 1819 to 1823 Sparks wrote extensively in defense of Unitarianism, editing the Unitarian Miscellany and Christian Monitor , which debated doctrinal issues. In 1821 , he was elected chaplain of the United States House of Representatives, in what amounted to a significant victory for the Unitarians. However, two years later, he resigned his pastorate due to ill health, and largely abandoned religious...

Television

Television   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,781 words

...educated generations of faculty, forged curricula, and filled academic journals. Humanistic approaches to television were fugitive in nature, often appearing in general readership magazines such as the Nation or Saturday Review . Critical, analytic work focused on textual analysis, aesthetic evaluation, or interpretive studies did not appear in academic journals, even in the increasingly available venues devoted to the study of film. Film studies had begun to find a place in academic settings during this same period, largely because “film as art”...

Azikiwe, Nnamdi

Azikiwe, Nnamdi   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,259 words

...Zik’s Press Ltd., with the publication in November 1937 of the first edition of the West African Pilot . Through his chain of newspapers ( Daily Comet, Eastern Nigerian Guardian, Eastern Sentinel, Nigerian Spokesman, Southern Nigerian Defender , and the Nigerian Monitor ), writings, lectures, and speeches, Azikiwe launched a multipronged campaign against the excesses of the British colonial government in Nigeria. He exposed the evils of colonialism and fought for African emancipation and independence. He mobilized the educated Nigerians,...

View: