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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Conservation

Conservation   Reference library

Robert L. Barclay and John R. Watson

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,336 words

...humidity and temperature, low light levels, absence of contaminants and biological agents, control of mechanical forces, and avoidance of mishandling, improper restoration, and other causes of physical change. Understanding the impact of the environment in its widest sense, and monitoring and controlling all aspects of it, are of prime importance. Professional conservators and conservation scientists who specialise in these fields are often consulted on the care of private and institutional collections and of especially valuable individual instruments. Some types...

Computer

Computer   Reference library

Peter Manning, Anne Beetem Acker, Peter Manning, and Anne Beetem Acker

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
4,238 words
Illustration(s):
1

...mounted on plug-in boards. This modular approach allowed the system configuration to be varied with relative ease. Control instructions were entered through a teletype terminal using mnemonic codes. To aid in data preparation, a graphics display screen permitted functions to be monitored visually. During performance the characteristics of selected devices could be modified using a special group of knobs, a joystick, or a keyboard. The musician could thus adopt the role of a conductor, influencing the interpretation of a score without playing all the individual...

Harp

Harp   Reference library

Sue Carole DeVale, Bo Lawergren, Sue Carole DeVale, Sue Carole DeVale, Bo Lawergren, Joan Rimmer, Robert Evans, William Taylor, Karen Loomis, Joan Rimmer, Cristina Bordas, Cheryl Ann Fulton, John M. Schechter, Sue Carole DeVale, Nancy Thym-Hochrein, Hannelore Devaere, Ronald Stevenson, Sue Carole DeVale, Nancy Thym-Hochrein, Mary McMaster, and Nancy Hurrell

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
34,223 words
Illustration(s):
7

...effects—an intensification of sonority or an increase of the noise to pitch ratio—are usually activated, directly or indirectly, by plucking the strings, but their material and position on the harp vary widely. On the ennanga rings of banana fibres wrapped with the skin of a monitor lizard are placed below each tuning peg at a point where the strings can vibrate against the rings. Circular metal plaques attached to the ardin soundtable skin are bordered with tiny loose metal jingles. West African kora players sometimes attach a similarly constructed but...

Royal Academy of Dance

Royal Academy of Dance   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Dance (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
209 words

...board. It was founded on 31 Dec. 1920 by Philip Richardson in conjunction with an eminent group of dancers and teachers including Adeline Genée and Édouard Espinosa. It was originally known as the Association of Operatic Dancing in Great Britain and its aim was to monitor standards of classical ballet training. In 1936 it was granted its royal charter, becoming the Royal Academy of Dancing, and it developed into the world's largest examining and training body, holding examinations for all standards of ballet throughout the world. It began...

Berio, Luciano

Berio, Luciano (24 Oct 1925)   Reference library

David R. Bubsey

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,272 words

...14–15 hours of lessons every week at Juilliard, was watching his second marriage fall apart. It was time, he decided, to return to Italy. Bibliography M. Donat : “Berio and his ‘Circles,’” MT , cv (1964), 105–7 L. Berio : “Meditation on a Twelve-Tone Horse,” Christian Science Monitor (1968), 8–9 D. Avron and J.-F. Lyotard : “‘A few words to sing’: Sequenza III,” Musique en jeu , no.2 (1971), 28–44; Eng. trans. in J.-F. Lyotard: Toward the Post-Modern (NJ, 1996) G.W. Flynn : “Listening to Berio's Music,” MQ , lxi (1975), 388–421 D. Osmond-Smith : “Berio...

Dealers, music and media

Dealers, music and media   Reference library

Daniel Zager

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,045 words

...whom librarians become acquainted with the broadest spectrum of newly published scores, recordings, and books. It would be nearly impossible, and economically costly, for librarians to monitor hundreds of individual publishers—large and small, from a broad geographic spectrum, with many being devoted to very specialized areas within the field of music. By monitoring the music publishing industries, dealers are in a position to provide librarians with regular and ongoing listings of new publications. Typically, these listings have been printed in various...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

Suzanne G. Cusick

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,717 words

...“the subaltern.” Transnational feminist Chandra Talpade Mohanty extended Black feminism's intersectional analysis to include the effects of global capitalism. These theoretical positions propelled academic feminism toward ever more heterogeneous critical strategies that emphasized the particular and performative over the universal and ontological. By 2010 academic feminism included such areas as the recuperation of “dangerous” pleasures and desires, masculinity studies, queer studies, transgender and transsexual studies, global and transnational studies of...

Electroacoustic music

Electroacoustic music   Reference library

Barry Schrader and Marc Battier

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,560 words

...systems. The first digital synthesizers were developed around 1970 and included the Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer designed in 1972 by the composer Appleton and the engineers Sydney Alonso and Cameron Jones. This consisted of a computer, an alphanumeric keyboard, a video monitor, and a disk drive. It combined the hardware of the computer music studio with the software of a voltage-controlled electronic music system; but the approach required of the user was more closely aligned with computer synthesis than composition with a modular synthesizer. From the...

Film and Video

Film and Video   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
11,734 words

...the proscenium stage, so that less drastic changes in the use of space would be required when the work was taped. In the video dance Fractions ( 1977–1978 ), up to four video monitors often share the screen space with the dancers. Images of dancers not seen in the central section of the screen or close-ups of those seen in full shots in the central section are shown on the monitors-within-the-screen. The film dance Locale ( 1979–1980 ) was structured around the challenge of using moving cameras to film moving dancers; it was filmed with one stable camera...

Poland

Poland   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
6,649 words

...bridesmaid that was also based on the mazur . (This solo became a touchstone for young ballerinas, including Marie Taglioni and Carlotta Grisi .) Kraków Wedding won immediate success with Polish audiences and unexpected acceptance from the Russian authorities who now monitored all performances. In 1826 Maurice Pion , a leading dancer in Thierry's company, took over its direction. For the next few years organizational and financial difficulties plagued the company, but following the failure of the Polish revolt in 1830–1831 , the Russian...

Los Angeles

Los Angeles   Reference library

Robert Stevenson, Lindsay Hansen, Mina Yang, Robert Stevenson, and Nathan Platte

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
11,026 words

...demand. In 1929 the AFM addressed the growing labor pressure by prohibiting all transfer members to Los Angeles's Local 47 from working in the Hollywood studios until after a year of residency. The AFM also appointed a new official, the international studio representative, to monitor musicians’ labor at the studios. Even with such policies in place, Los Angeles quickly acquired a vast pool of musical talent that would help it become the center for radio, television, and the recording industry. In the 1930s each major studio kept only a handful of principal...

New York City Ballet

New York City Ballet   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
9,130 words

...of academic dancing. The consistency and depth of the dancing at the New York City Ballet owed much to the special nature of Balanchine's company class. As the twentieth century's major innovator in ballet style and technique, he made company class a laboratory rather than a warm-up, working with his dancers to explore and expand the vocabulary of classical ballet and to increase the scale and dynamic range of classical dancing. As he taught his dancers to know classical ballet vocabulary with unprecedented depth and precision, he constantly monitored their...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
45,715 words

...interest and respect for classical dance, ballet has been invited into U.S. colleges. An academic interest has legitimated the history of ballet and the philosophy of its styles. More surprising is the acceptance of ballet as a physical movement science to be taught by a knowledgeable faculty. Ballet teachers in colleges often are retired dancers whose prestigious performing, directing, or choreographing careers are accepted as experience in lieu of the academic degrees required of most university faculty members. Notable among them have been Willam...

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