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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...largely scientific subjects (his ‘Chrestomathia’). A prospectus for the ‘University of London’ was issued, an appeal launched, a joint-stock company founded to manage the funds, and some distinguished academic staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’....

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...their capacity to play a part in the evolving drama of national politics. By 1776 this reading public was well established and the cultural and especially political implications of its composition were vigorously debated. What were its boundaries? Should the reading public be monitored, or learn to discipline itself? For the bookseller James *Lackington , the expansion in the reading public was a development to be welcomed, especially insofar as it reflected on his own achievements. In his self-aggrandizing Memoirs ( 1791 ), Lackington commented ‘that the...

Shakespeare and Australia

Shakespeare and Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Literature (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,585 words

...from the 1820s onwards attest to the popularity of editions of Shakespeare, and in the same decade Edward Smith Hall , like many subsequent Australian newspaper proprietors, adopted Othello 's ‘Nothing extenuate,/ Nor set down aught in malice’, as a motto for his Sydney Monitor . Most early significant Shakespearean performers, such as Conrad Knowles , Australia's first Hamlet, and Eliza Winstanley , a notable early Lady Macbeth who went on to successes in England and America, were immigrant amateurs without prior theatrical training. One of...

Feminism

Feminism   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,345 words

...as sexual harassment and domestic violence—were raised publicly for the first time. This ‘women's rights’ feminism made great progress in the 1980s, but still faced problems: equality may have been achieved in law, but it remained mainly theoretical, and the implementation and monitoring of legislation was not always possible. Women still formed a tiny part of the political, intellectual, and business élites in France, while providing the majority of the low‐paid, unskilled workers and of the unemployed. Abolished during the 1986–8 period of political...

Malamud, Bernard

Malamud, Bernard   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
5,452 words

...in a future Malamud leaves open to the reader's conjecture. A New Life A New Life may be a novel set in academia, but it is longer on artistic vision than most of the cardboard fictions set in Eyesore U. and known as academic novels. And while it is true that A New Life is often mentioned in the same breath as other classic novels of academic folly such as Mary McCarthy 's Groves of Academe ( 1952 ) or Randall Jarrell 's Pictures from an Institution ( 1954 ), it is, finally, about confronting the same inner torments that afflicted his earlier...

Kerouac, Jack

Kerouac, Jack   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
5,578 words

...with an exoticized and often racist subjectivity demonstrates a need in his stories for the control that he did not have in his life. With an alcoholic's instability, Kerouac used his fiction as a stabilized reality. In it he could influence personalities of characters; he could monitor and organize the course and outcome of stories. Perhaps ironically, Kerouac maintains a remarkable honesty about his alcoholism in many of his books— The Subterraneans among them, as well as Big Sur ( 1962 ) and Vanity of Duluoz —citing constant drunkenness as a cause of the...

Plath, Sylvia

Plath, Sylvia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
5,687 words

...Wellesley, Massachusetts. At this early stage in her life, Sylvia Plath was already embarked on a brilliant academic career, aspiring with immense discipline and hard work to become the ideal all-around student. She won a scholarship to study at Smith College, where she maintained her high grade average while enjoying an active social life, serving as an editor of the Smith Review , and publishing stories in Seventeen , the Christian Science Monitor , and Mademoiselle . Plath was later to find the transition from her initial success as a precocious...

Linguistic Perspectives on Translation

Linguistic Perspectives on Translation   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
5,052 words

...a good translation and what constitutes a good original work of literature. The reception of Ulysses would almost certainly have been different if it had been presented to the literary community as a translation from another language. Subconsciously, then, translators may monitor their linguistic output in order to conform to the expectations of readers and reviewers. So they end up drawing on the ‘safer’, more typical patterns of the language. Pym [I.b.5.iv] offers another possible motivation for the kind of patterning we are beginning to identify even...

James, Henry

James, Henry   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
10,975 words

...Barzun and Lionel Trilling, James came to be reinstalled at the very center of critical practice in both popular and academic culture. New editions of his work were issued, many of them in the newly popular form of paperback classics, and Edel's massive biography appeared to critical acclaim. Many of his works, especially stories like Daisy Miller and The Turn of the Screw , became staples of the undergraduate classroom. Academic literary criticism proliferated, particularly under the aegis of the so-called New Criticism, or the close, intrinsic...

Internet

Internet   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Children's Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature, Children's literature studies
Length:
2,057 words

...some free speech and right-to-privacy concerns) or present more detailed descriptions of the sex, violence, and profanity in movies (kid-in-mind.com). Parents are encouraged to be more attentive to the Web viewing habits of their children, and government agencies have begun monitoring (and setting up sting operations in) the virtual environment; and the U.S. government passed the Child's Internet Safety Protection Act (CIPA), designed to criminalize those virtual activities that harm children (again, not without significant civil liberties concerns and...

Pritchett, V. S.

Pritchett, V. S.   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
3,070 words

...fiction of postwar Britain. The Criticism From the time the Monitor appointed him book reviewer to the very end of his writing career, Pritchett produced countless reviews, essays, and literary studies. As a self-taught critic and creative writer, he approaches his tasks with an amateur's enthusiasm and relish, yet with a scholar's rigor and eye for detail. However, he is as far removed from the prejudices of literary coteries as he is from the theory-laden methods of academic critics. Pritchett is his own man, delivering observations and judgments...

education

education   Reference library

Leon Litvack

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,947 words

...Wider access was facilitated by the non-sectarian British and Foreign School Society (founded 1808 ), and the strongly religious National Society for Promoting the Education of the Poor in the Principles of the Established Church (founded 1811 ); both used the large-scale monitorial system, and between them they administered over 18,000 schools by 1851 . Dickens objected to the National Society's insistence on church intervention in education, declaring that the ‘Catechism is wholly inapplicable to the state of ignorance that now prevails’ (to Macvey...

Ishiguro, Kazuo

Ishiguro, Kazuo   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
2,649 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and selfhood far outstrip similar quandaries faced by Ryder, her thematic forbearer. As the novel progresses, the reader discovers that Kathy is a genetically engineered clone whose sole purpose is to furnish vital organs for the “normal” people of the world. The clones are monitored by “guardians” who teach them to appreciate the refinements of life, including music and art. Yet despite all this, Ishiguro strives to avoid sentimentality, paradoxically reaffirming that, even among clones, Heraclitus was right: “Character is fate.” As in When We Were...

critical history

critical history   Reference library

Tom Matheson

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...John Heminges and Henry Condell , refer to the universality, popularity, and accessibility of the works; their dual status, as plays to be performed live on stage, and as texts to be read; the textual authority of the early printed editions, despite their author’s inability to monitor many of them; Shakespeare’s mysterious ease of composition and access to so-called ‘Nature’, exemplifying his spontaneous genius. Ben Jonson , extravagantly calling the author ‘my beloved’, compares his achievement not only to his English predecessors and contemporaries (...

publishing companies

publishing companies   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
1,185 words

...solely to publishing. Others, more adept at retailing, moved from publishing per se and concentrated on wholesaling and the remaindering of books. The majority of small eighteenth-century publishing companies were owned and run either by a single proprietor or by partners who monitored all the printing and publishing processes. Established companies active in literary publishing undertook everyday printing and regular reprints of popular works, usually to subsidize their fine-book publishing. Larger publishing firms with two or more active financial partners,...

Asian Americans on Television

Asian Americans on Television   Reference library

Alison Yeh Cheung and Kent A. Ono

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Asian American Literature and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...Asian Americans. 23 Scholarship on the representation of Asian Americans in cinema, focusing on television as opposed to films, is useful in tracing Asian American representation due to the relative production frequency of television episodes. Darrell Hamamoto’s groundbreaking Monitored Peril ( 1994 ) engages Asian American studies beyond media and communication and also takes an interdisciplinary historical and sociological approach to the study of TV. 24 Hamamoto traces the historical archives of the representation of Asian Americans on TV, demonstrating an...

Banning of Ethnic Studies in the United States

Banning of Ethnic Studies in the United States   Reference library

Norma E. Cantú

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...and happy, for the tree lies between the Rio Grande and the wall built in that stretch of the border. As such, it is under threat. There are plans to raze everything between the wall and the river to make it easier for US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to patrol and monitor the area. Two ICE officers patrolled the area where we stood, the green van sticking closer to the wall than to the river at that point. The tree was an oasis, and looking over the fields that lie to the east and that are also in that in-between space, I had the feeling that no...

Secret Agent, The

Secret Agent, The   Reference library

Oxford Reader’s Companion To Conrad

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,994 words

...political ideologies reflect and corrupt each other. The secret agent of the title is ostensibly Adolf Verloc , a purveyor of disreputable wares whose primary source of income is the secret-service fund of a foreign (Russian) embassy that has employed him for eleven years to monitor and report on the activities of anarchist groups with names like the International Red Committee or the Future of the Proletariat. Verloc also serves as an unpaid informer to the police in the person of Chief Inspector Heat. Verloc is a soft pornographer, indolent and bourgeois,...

Morrissey as Latina/o Literary and Cultural Icon

Morrissey as Latina/o Literary and Cultural Icon   Reference library

Melissa M. Hidalgo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...support him unconditionally. An emerging body of scholarly and academic work looks at the significant musical, cultural, and social contributions of The Smiths and Morrissey. The academic-conference circuit provides fertile testing grounds for papers about The Smiths and Morrissey from scholars across the disciplines, including ethnomusicology, sociology, literature, and cultural studies. A 2009 symposium about Morrissey at the University of Limerick in Ireland produced the first known academic collection of essays about the singer in 2011 . Edited by Eoin...

Tígueres and Tígueras in Dominican National and Diasporic Culture

Tígueres and Tígueras in Dominican National and Diasporic Culture   Reference library

Jacob C. Brown

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latina and Latino Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020

...humble study, the first edition of El tíguere dominicano serves as an urtext for virtually every academic work that has addressed the topic of tígueres and tigueraje . The form of this book is that of an “estudio ensayístico,” or book of essays, that sets out to analyze the history, origins, and psychology of the tíguere beyond Damirón’s wary depiction of Santo Domingo’s urban poor. 27 Despite these high ambitions, the book cites only a few academic sources and relies a great deal on anecdotal and informal evidence, thereby demanding a great deal of...

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