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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Paragrammatism

Paragrammatism   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
1,380 words

...by Mary-Louise Kean , pp. 207–248. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press. Jakobson, Roman . 1956. Two aspects of language and two types of aphasic disturbances. In Fundamentals of language , edited by Roman Jakobson and Morris Halle , pp. 55–82. The Hague: Mouton. Kleist, Karl . 1916. Über Leitungsafasie und grammatische Störungen . Monatsschrift für Psychiatrie und Neurologie 40.118–199. Lecours, André Roch , et al. 1981. Jargons. In Jargonaphasia , edited by Jason W. Brown , pp. 9–38. New York: Academic Press. Lecours, André Roch , et al. 1983. ...

Psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
10,033 words

...plan as a sequence of articulatory gestures . The primary execution modes are the oral for spoken languages, and the manual for sign languages. The main secondary mode is writing. Language users are to some extent able to monitor and edit their own linguistic output, either before or after it is overtly articulated. Self-monitoring probably involves the language comprehension system.Language comprehension comprises at least the following component processes. (d) Perceptual (auditory or visual) decoding : mapping linguistic input (connected speech, a...

Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Bilingualism and Multilingualism   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
7,869 words

...results. First, for both majority and minority students, instruction through the medium of a minority language appears to entail no long-term delay in the development of academic skills in the majority language. Thus, students from anglophone home backgrounds in Canada who are instructed during the early grades largely through the medium of French perform as well in English academic skills as students instructed entirely through English. By the same token, minority francophone students in Canada who are instructed largely through French perform as well in...

Aphasia

Aphasia   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
7,828 words

...aphasia . San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press. Jakobson, Roman 1956. Two types of language and two types of aphasic disturbance. In Fundamentals of language , edited by Roman Jakobson and Morris Halle . The Hague: Mouton. Sarno, M. T. , ed. 1998. Acquired aphasia . 3rd ed. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press. Schuell, H. , J. J. Jenkins , and E. Jimenez-Pabon . 1965. Aphasia in adults . New York: Harper and Row. Stemmer, B. , and H. A. Whitaker , eds. 1998. Handbook of neurolinguistics . San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press. Warrington, E. K. , and T....

Translation and Interpretation

Translation and Interpretation   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
2,942 words

...linguistic challenges posed by specific language combinations, descriptions of personal interpreting experiences, and training strategies, current interpretation theory takes a “cognitive” perspective. Researchers examine a variety of processing components (such as memory, monitoring, perception, and comprehension) in interdisciplinary frameworks, demonstrating the value of quantitative contributions from areas such as linguistics, psychology, neurology, and communication (Alexieva 1997 , Carlet 1998 , Danks et al. 1997 , Darò 1997 , Garcia-Landa 1998...

Computational Linguistics

Computational Linguistics   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
17,923 words
Illustration(s):
2

...on different parts. A comparable situation holds for other processing components. However, the occurrence of incomplete inputs has a drawback: it increases the probability for the generator “to talk itself into a corner.” This circumstance is one of the reasons for including a monitor in the generator's design. Its task is to diagnose troubles incurred by any component, and to reactivate earlier components with modified inputs. The oldest natural language generators date from the early 1970s. They generated isolated English sentences from a shallow meaning...

Philosophy of Language

Philosophy of Language   Reference library

International Encyclopedia of Linguistics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Linguistics
Length:
23,263 words

...reference, descriptions, and anaphora. In Pragmatics (Syntax and semantics, 9), edited by Peter Cole , pp. 47–68. New York: Academic Press. Fodor, Jerry A. 1981. Some notes on what linguistics is about. In Readings in philosophy of psychology , vol. 2, edited by Ned Block , pp. 197–207. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Gazdar, Gerald . 1979. Pragmatics: Implicature, presupposition and logical form . New York: Academic Press. Grice, H. Paul . 1975. Logic and conversation. In The logic of grammar , edited by Donald Davidson and Gilbert...

Persuasion

Persuasion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
5,639 words

...self-monitoring (the degree to which they are sensitive to the image they project), with this then predisposing receivers to vary in the degree to which symbolic or instrumental functions are served by their attitudes. Thus a high self-monitoring receiver might be either easier or more difficult to persuade than a low self-monitoring receiver, depending on whether the message's persuasive appeal matched the receiver's underlying symbolic attitude function. Studies of such phenomena (the effects of variation in receiver attributes such as self-monitoring,...

Usage

Usage   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,014 words

...and prescriptive connotations in bad usage, correct usage, usage and abusage , and usage controversies . History The first citation of the term usage in the OED in a linguistic sense is from daniel defoe in 1697 , referring to the proposed English Academy to monitor the language, on the model of the Académie française: ‘The voice of this society should be sufficient authority for the usage of words.’ Before the 17c, the concept of usage or custom in English was hardly known: individuals spoke and wrote largely as they wished, and each...

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