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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

hedge schools

hedge schools   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
249 words

...in classics and modern languages. Such books as were used were often simply what lay to hand, e.g. religious literature or novels. Children were taught individually, though William Carleton , himself a hedge school pupil and teacher, claimed that a system close to the monitorial was quite common by the early 19th century. Kenneth...

No Child Left Behind

No Child Left Behind   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
842 words

...the “achievement gap”—defined as the disproportionate literacy rates between white and “nonwhite” students in public schools. The academic achievement of Caucasian and African American students in particular suggest that students in public schools are not receiving the same education even within the same school. The No Child Left Behind legislation is designed to close the achievement gap through accountability by monitoring the annual state-generated test scores of all students in grades three through eight and certain high school courses. States must...

Asmal, Kader

Asmal, Kader (1934)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
844 words

...Asmal, Kader ( 1934 – ) , South African academic, human rights campaigner, and respected veteran of the African National Congress (ANC) in exile, was born in Stanger, a small rural town in what is now KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Asmal was a founder of the British and Irish antiapartheid movements. He was also an academic, who taught law for almost three decades at Trinity College Dublin, during his exile from South Africa. In the broad array of constituencies and opinions that has historically constituted the ANC, Asmal has consistently stood for liberal...

Bioethics

Bioethics   Reference library

Susan E. Lederer and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
927 words

...American men (the Tuskegee Experiment ) shocked the public and the U.S. Congress. In the wake of public hearings, President Richard M. Nixon in July 1974 signed the National Research Act, requiring institutions receiving federal aid to form institutional review boards to monitor proposals involving human research subjects. The act also created a National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research to develop guidelines to protect human participants in biomedical research. Including physicians, lawyers, clergy,...

Pacific Islands–Australian relations

Pacific Islands–Australian relations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,331 words

...New Guinean issue. Although New Zealand took the lead in brokering a truce, Australia contributed most of the ‘peace dividend’ and Australian personnel are the largest component of the peace-monitoring teams. The collapse of government in Solomon Islands in 2000 prompted similar Australian involvement in a cease-fire and disarmament initiative, and in monitoring the peace. Prompted by interventions there and in East Timor , some Island governments want to commit Australia to take an active role in Irian Jaya. Australian scholars have therefore made...

Bunche, Ralph Johnson

Bunche, Ralph Johnson (b. 7 August 1903)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,353 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Colored People Records, Library of Congress This continuing belief informed not only Bunche's activity with public organizations, such as the National Negro Congress, but also his academic work with the Carnegie Corporation's celebrated project on race relations in the United States led by the Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal. The latter also led to Bunche's most lasting academic work, later published as The Political Status of the Negro in the Age of FDR ( 1973 ), which contains a detailed analysis of the societal position of the African American and, as...

West Harlem Environmental Action

West Harlem Environmental Action   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,170 words

...monitor and respond to issues and problems…. There is a keen resistance to funding research, public policy work and capacity building….To fund an organization of color to do research on a community of color is a radical act of income redistribution.” ( Shepard , p. 14) Shepard promoted a collaborative stance with both academic and environmental groups as well as government officials. WE ACT worked to maintain the relevance and urgency of the environmental conditions for residents of New York, and especially Harlem inhabitants, in political and academic...

Ncube, Welshman

Ncube, Welshman (1961– )   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,121 words
Illustration(s):
1

...talks that culminated in the signing of the Global Political Agreement (GPA) in September 2008 . He is currently the minister of industry and commerce and chief negotiator for his party in the ongoing talks about full implementation of the GPA and is a key member of the Joint Monitoring and Implementation Commission (JOMIC) tasked to review the stages of the implementation of the GPA and to attend to issues of continued violations of the provisions of the GPA. Ncube is married to Thobekile-Siwela Ncube, a daughter of the late PF-ZAPU nationalist stalwart and...

Ukasha, Tharwat 

Ukasha, Tharwat  (1921)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
951 words

...over civilian government officials and to distance themselves from more radical allies on the left and right, he was appointed editor-in-chief of al-Tahrir , a newly established monthly magazine that was run briefly by a group of Marxist intellectuals. Ukasha was charged with monitoring the journal’s tone, but did little to change its editorial slant. In July 1953 he was dismissed and delegated to Europe to fulfill minor diplomatic functions. Comrades in the armor corps took affront and some spoke of making a stand, but Ukasha went quietly. Ukasha served as...

Institute for Puerto Rican Policy

Institute for Puerto Rican Policy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,439 words

...Nieves , and Angelo Falcón , who was president for the fifteen years IPR operated as an independent entity. Formation and Early Projects IPR was established by a group of Puerto Rican activists and academics interested in producing research that community advocates could use in practical ways. Research on Puerto Ricans at the time was dominated by purely academic or highly specialized professional approaches not accessible to the average community advocate. At the same time, most Puerto Rican social agencies, which originally were created with social change...

Anti‐Apartheid Movement

Anti‐Apartheid Movement   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,940 words

...government voted for a mandatory arms embargo under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. Although the embargo was shot through with loopholes, it was a major step forward; in 1979 the AAM sponsored the World Campaign Against Military and Nuclear Collaboration with South Africa to monitor breaches of the embargo and campaign for its stricter enforcement. In the 1970s, while the AAM bombarded the government with memos calling for a stricter arms ban and economic disengagement from South Africa, it put most of its energy into persuading individuals and organizations...

Dropouts and Retention

Dropouts and Retention   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,561 words

...(e.g., intelligence) can primarily be accounted for on the basis of genetics” (Valencia, Villarreal, and Salinas, p. 256). Its functions, according to Richard Valencia , Bruno Villarreal , and Moises Salinas , include: (1) the management of instruction—the sorting, monitoring, and grading of student achievement; (2) public accountability; and (3) the legitimization of the schooling process, or the sanctioning of a highly stratified public education system. These functions of standardized testing have important implications for the quality of...

Sanhuri, ʿAbd al-Razzaq Ahmad al-

Sanhuri, ʿAbd al-Razzaq Ahmad al- (1895)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,951 words

...in 1945 , originally modeled on the French institution by the same name. Its principal functions were to advise the government on legal matters and to oversee the application of national laws in public institutions. The council operated as both a bureaucratic apparatus for monitoring and advising the government and a hierarchical system of administrative courts. Sanhuri’s tenure cemented his reputation as a champion of the rule of law, individual freedoms, and limited government. Under his leadership, the council advanced its own power of judicial review...

Institute of Race Relations

Institute of Race Relations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,110 words

...of Race Relations . Body set up in 1958 to monitor race relations in Britain. If ‘race relations’ was central to the formation of the Institute of Race Relations, so was politics. In 1952 it was felt that the Department of Race Relations, which was part of Chatham House (the Royal Institute of International Affairs), needed to serve a wider constituency. The end of empire and the emergence of the British Commonwealth also saw increasing attention being paid to the Department. By April 1958 it was relocated to Jermyn Street, London, and renamed the...

Weaver, Robert C.

Weaver, Robert C. (b. 29 December 1907)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,480 words

...similar federal intervention, this time for economic as well as social and political justice. To this end Weaver and Davis, back in Washington in the summer of 1933 , organized the Negro Industrial League to pressure New Deal agencies to address the needs of blacks. They also monitored the hearings of the National Recovery Administration to ensure that blacks benefited from the program. In the fall of 1933 Weaver was invited to join the New Deal as assistant to Clark Foreman, special adviser for the Department of the Interior on the economic status of...

Popular Arts and Culture

Popular Arts and Culture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,163 words

...function of “‘re-elaborating’ social structures and inventing new ones” (quoted in Tatum). Blurring the theoretical lines of popular culture, Latina and Latino popular arts and culture emerge as problematic and problematizing concepts that are at once complicit with hegemony in monitoring and maintaining aesthetic production to benefit the dominant society through cultural commodification and capital—for example, the Santa Fe style as a popular home-decorating style. All the while, Latina and Latino popular culture is an empowered articulation from subordinated...

ElBaradei, Mohamed

ElBaradei, Mohamed (1942)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,359 words
Illustration(s):
1

...individual fuel cycles. More successful were his efforts to keep nuclear and radiological material safe from extremists, by launching a campaign to enhance the protection of nuclear facilities, securing powerful radioactive sources, training law enforcement officials, and monitoring border crossings. A pacifist, ElBaradei cautioned against military action and maintained that “direct dialogue, without preconditions and on the basis of mutual respect” was the way forward in disarmament. He had been ignored in 2003 , when he had warned that IAEA inspectors...

Lihamba, Amandina

Lihamba, Amandina (1944)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,175 words

...scholar at the University of California in Los Angeles. Besides arts and culture, Lihamba’s interests include gender studies, education, politics, and communication. She pioneered successful initiatives and attained considerable experience in their planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. She has acted as a consultant to many institutions and organizations, including the Tanzania National Arts Council, the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Forum for African Educationalists, the Popular Theatre Alliance, the Tanzania Commission for Sciences...

Mamean

Mamean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,278 words

...not so violently as it drove many Mam and Ixil to the refugee camps of Mexico. Peace through globalization, 1984–2000. Violence eventually drew international attention to Guatemala, leading to indigenous activist Rigoberta Menchú's Nobel Peace award and UN monitoring. International monitoring smoothed the transition from political control to market power as the new basis of prestige. It also nurtured the rise of Indian activism and the formation of a pan-Maya identity under the umbrella of worldwide indigenous rights. Modern communications exposed...

Cuban Communities Abroad Project

Cuban Communities Abroad Project   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,639 words

...political, and even social service organizations in the Cuban community in the United States. This project was housed within Cuba's Ministry of the Interior, specifically its counterintelligence offices. Exiles were enemies of the revolution, and their activities were closely monitored. They were called gusanos , “worms,” literally denoting the one duffle bag they were allowed to take with them but also a double entendre suggesting that they were low-life. In the early 1970s a debate in the exile community ensued as to whether Cuban exiles should engage in...

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