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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Seamanship

Seamanship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,701 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a modern ship fifty times the size through heavy traffic in poor visibility still requires a deep understanding of a ship’s response to the elements but also demands coordinated use of technology and interpretation of an array of information from electronic measuring and monitoring equipment. The common element is the art of seamanship. [ See also Coastal Navigation ; Lepanto, Battle of ; Nautical Astronomy and Celestial Navigation ; Navigational Instruments ; Shipboard Life ; and Ship’s Equipment .] Admiralty (England). Manual of Seamanship,...

Arctic Ocean

Arctic Ocean   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
4,325 words
Illustration(s):
3

...research expeditions that sampled much of the surface water masses of the central Arctic Ocean. During the past five decades the observed extent of Arctic sea ice declined in all seasons. Arctic sea ice research, primarily using advanced satellite remote sensors that can monitor ice without the influences of weather or polar darkness, has shown that the perennial sea ice is shrinking in extent. Arctic sea ice thicknesses have also been observed to be significantly reduced. All of these changes are documented in a historic Arctic study, the Arctic Climate...

Language

Language   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
5,773 words
Illustration(s):
1

...sailboat with all its sails flying, which would make the boat’s course and movement entirely out of control. Evolution As the maritime enterprise evolved, new words appeared in the language. During the Civil War, the Union produced several “ironclad” vessels in the tradition of Monitor , introducing a new adjective to the language, seen in such phrases as “ironclad alibi”—an alibi that can withstand close scrutiny. Later, steam power on ships added “full steam ahead” and “blowing off steam.” Shipbuilding and travel have added “launch,” “get under way,” “make...

Marine Science Instruments

Marine Science Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,497 words
Illustration(s):
1

...later known as sonar ( sound navigation and ranging ). Many sound sources were tried, ranging from explosions to metallic percussion (often a hammer striking the ship’s hull) to electromagnetically produced ultrasound. Initially, the passage of each sound pulse had to be monitored and timed individually, so successive soundings could be many minutes apart. Nevertheless, the resolution provided by this new technique was much better than with conventional rope or wire soundings. As a result, the first major oceanographic expedition to employ echo sounding,...

Navies, Great Powers

Navies, Great Powers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
52,890 words
Illustration(s):
5

...and a smaller armor-plated ship was built in Britain . Two copies of the latter were soon produced in Russia , as were a larger center battery ship and seventeen turret monitors/coastal-defense ships; all were completed by 1870 . In 1871 , Russia denounced the Treaty of Paris but kept its Black Sea fleet limited for some time, building two rather eccentric circular monitors and few smaller vessels. The new torpedo technology was welcomed by the Russians in their weakened state, and numerous small torpedo boats were built in the late 1870s. These...

Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Comprehensive

Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Comprehensive   Reference library

Jonathan A. Kolieb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...still be lacking. The Preparatory Commission for the CTBT, based in Vienna, is charged with both constructing the treaty's verification regime—which is designed to monitor compliance with its provisions—and also promptly notifying member states of any nuclear explosion conducted anywhere on the globe. By 2012 , more than 250 of a planned 337 facilities had been constructed worldwide to monitor for seismic, acoustic, and radioactive signs of nuclear explosions. [ See also Clinton, Bill ; Nuclear Weapons and Strategy , subentry on Nuclear...

peacekeeping

peacekeeping   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...there were 296 resolutions, or 49 per year. Peacekeeping today therefore comprises a wider range of activities, which has prompted the introduction of new terms in military, political, and academic circles. The evolution began with the Namibian operation (the UN Transition Assistance Group, 1989 ), which was mandated with more authority than previous missions. UNTAG monitored the withdrawal of South African troops, registered voters, and managed the 1989 elections, which led to Namibia's independence. Subsequent operations have used even more robust rules of...

Russo-Japanese war

Russo-Japanese war (1904–5)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,104 words
Illustration(s):
1

...circumnavigating the world, the Russian fleet was surprised by the Japanese in the Straits of Tsushima between Korea and Japan. Vice Adm Zinoviy Rozhdestvenskiy commanded the Russian force. His eight battleships, nine cruisers (only one of them armoured), three coast defence monitors, and an assortment of other ships ran into Adm Togo's four battleships and 24 cruisers, eight of them armoured. The Russians had 228 guns to the Japanese 910 but their strength in big guns—8 to 12 inch—was almost equal, with 54 Russian to 60 Japanese. At 07.00 on 27 May the...

Strategic Debate in Australia 1945–2005

Strategic Debate in Australia 1945–2005   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...was also a major force in the progress of the Partial Test-Ban Treaty and the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Because of its location in the southern hemisphere and the existence of the monitoring facilities at Pine Gap and Nurrungar, and seismological facilities elsewhere, Australia is and will continue to be exceptionally well-placed to play a role in the global monitoring of arms control. A few other Australian contributors to the world's strategic debate should be mentioned in passing. Coral Bell may perhaps have been one of the first to see publication in...

Foundations, Philanthropic, and U.S. Foreign Policy

Foundations, Philanthropic, and U.S. Foreign Policy   Reference library

Volker R. Berghahn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in February 1956 , and after the upheavals in Hungary and Poland in the fall of that year, the big American foundations funded programs that brought East European academics and intellectuals to the West. They also supported lecture tours by prominent Western scholars, as well as the sending of academic books. To allay suspicions of the Communist authorities that the foundations were in effect covert agents of the CIA, research institutes in smaller and hence less suspect countries were turned into hubs where...

Judiciary and Foreign Policy

Judiciary and Foreign Policy   Reference library

Jeremy Rabkin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...courts. No case even denies the president's legal authority to set aside or reinterpret customary international law in a particular dispute. Congress or the president would likely apply brakes before U.S. courts went very far in setting themselves up as independent human rights monitors for the world at large. International human rights claims—as defined by American courts—will not likely be allowed to take priority over broader concerns of American foreign policy. When it comes to imposing serious constraints on U.S. policy overseas, or even preempting...

Bush, George W.

Bush, George W. (1946)   Reference library

Stanley A. Renshon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and counterintelligence officials; • passing the Patriot Act ( October 2001 ), which allowed federal officials to get permission to set up a roving wiretap on terrorist suspects and to monitor domestic calls or international calls that had a domestic relay element; • initiating protocols with domestic (CHIPS) and foreign (SWIFT) money-transfer facilities to monitor international transactions, the goal being to intercept and disrupt the terrorists’ financial support; • setting up a military holding facility at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, to house terrorist...

Terror, War on

Terror, War on   Reference library

Robert S. Singh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...enemy combatants. This in turn necessitated the deployment of U.S. military and intelligence forces to relevant theaters around the globe. Inside the United States, a new priority was to be attached to the maintenance of “homeland security,” entailing a more aggressive monitoring, deterrence, and apprehension of possible terrorist suspects and plotters. Both aspects of the war on terror proved highly contentious but necessary conditions of a successful campaign. The administration's first external focus was Afghanistan, where al-Qaeda had been harbored...

National Security

National Security   Reference library

Donald M. Snow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...including conducting “periodic reviews of the Administration's major foreign policy initiatives,” according to the Obama administration's Presidential Policy Directive 1 ( PPD 1 ), which formally charged constituent parts of the NSC system. Moreover, the DC is charged with monitoring day-to-day crisis-management situations for the president. Interagency Policy Committees (IPCs). Unlike the other layers in the interagency process that consist of single decision bodies, the IPCs are a series of bodies rather than a single one. Under administrations before...

Office of Strategic Services

Office of Strategic Services   Reference library

Barry M. Katz

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Director for Intelligence Services, Brig-General John Magruder , was responsible for the activities of four intelligence branches: Secret Intelligence (SI) procured, frequently through unorthodox means, data about Axis and Axis-occupied countries; Counter-Intelligence (X-2) monitored the intelligence operations of other nations, ran double agents in the field, and evaluated the credibility of foreign nationals offering their services to American officials; the Foreign Nationalities Branch (FN) interviewed refugees and foreign citizens residing in the USA....

Canada

Canada   Reference library

J. L. Granatstein

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...in monitoring Vichy French communications from the legation in Ottawa, the embassy in Washington, and French Indo-China, in deciphering Abwehr traffic from South America, and in reading Japanese wireless communications intercepted by a station at Victoria, BC, including messages that implicated Spanish diplomats in Tokyo's spying. In September 1942 , the unit created a Special Intelligence Section to analyse the last product; the section did especially well because its head was E. Herbert Norman , a Canadian diplomat who was one of the leading academic...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

Jürgen Förster, Charles Messenger (Armed Forces), and Wolfgang Petter (Culture)

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,337 words
Illustration(s):
3

..., was Walter Schellenberg who, after the RSHA acquired control of the Abwehr in 1944 , commanded an enlarged department of 12 groups and 48 desks. There were two government intelligence services: the foreign ministry's branches for spying (after 1941 ), deciphering, and monitoring press and radio; and Göring's Forschungsamt (research department) which was linked to the State of Prussia and which also broke codes, intercepted diplomatic, commercial, and radio messages, and tapped telephones ( see Forschungsstelle ). Though it was successful in staying...

Japan

Japan   Reference library

Ian Nish, Gordon Daniels, Stephen Large, Gordon Daniels, Akashi Yoji, Ian Gow, John Chapman, Peter Davies, and Gordon Daniels

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
21,629 words
Illustration(s):
3

...penetrated. Additionally, the IJA broke the Diplomatic code used by the Chinese mission in Tokyo; traffic analysis and direction-finding units of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) could, and did, track individual warships of the US Pacific Fleet across the Pacific; and close monitoring of local Hawaii radio stations helped reveal the names of US warships in port prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor. The Japanese also had long-standing organizations for internal security and counter-intelligence, this being one of the responsibilities of the Kempei (law...

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