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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

George Charles von Hevesy

George Charles von Hevesy  

(1885–1966)Hungarian-born Swedish chemist who was awarded the 1943 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on radioactive tracers.The son of a wealthy industrialist, Hevesy was educated at the ...
Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,029 words

...fundamentalists utilize sacred scriptures with the syntactic skill of academic text critics, preserving and reinscribing the internal logic of a given text (for Christians, the New Testament; for Hindus, the Vedas) to combat the multiplicity of source materials offered by the vast print culture in the modern age. The scriptural asceticism of textual inerrancy might be then seen as a thoroughly modern project, endorsed by the practices of the emergent universities and academic disciplines where many early fundamentalists were employed and subsequent...

Hospitals

Hospitals   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,621 words

...flagships of scientific medicine, besieged by a steady demand for more beds and services. Increased specialization and sophisticated medical technology further enhanced their appeal. Lacking funds, many hospitals in Europe struggled in their antiquated and cramped facilities, monitored by regional or central government agencies that exercised control over location, finances, and supply of beds. In Britain, implementation of the National Service Act of 1946 placed all hospitals under government ownership. Their medical staffs remained closed and...

Deserts and Desertification

Deserts and Desertification   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,310 words
Illustration(s):
1

...southern fringes of the African Sahara; the impact on human communities varies from minor to severe and may include famine, and there are different strategies to combat it. Desertification not only affects desert margins but also areas in the dry tropics far away from deserts. Monitoring desertification is difficult, but satellite images, available since the 1960s, indicate that it is increasing, with as much as 70 percent of the world's drylands and their 1 billion inhabitants being affected. It is a complex process involving soil erosion, loss of moisture,...

Prisons and Punishment

Prisons and Punishment   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,126 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Bay, on the eastern side of New South Wales (Australia), was chosen in 1786 , quickly followed by other locations on the island. A total of 187,000 British convicts were transported to Australia between 1787 and 1840 . Most worked for private employers but were always monitored by the government. When convicts violated the rules, additional punishment was imposed on them through flogging and internment in prisons. At the end of their sentences many received land grants and were able to assimilate into free society. Around 1820 , as the free population...

Migrant Labor

Migrant Labor   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,356 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Migration studies focusing on wage labor, or based on unreliable official data, ignore pastoralists, people in itinerant trades, and displacement for informal work or family, religious, health, farming, and commercial purposes. Illegal or illicit activities are poorly monitored; refugees all too often move in large numbers at chaotic times, with many escaping individual notice as they flee mortal danger. Migration research is particularly difficult in Africa because of the diverse forms it takes in this context. Prehistoric and Precolonial Change....

Industrialization

Industrialization   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
7,968 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Angus . Monitoring the World Economy, 1820–1992 . Paris: OCDE, 1995. An excellent source for statistics on economic growth. McNeill, J. R. Something New under the Sun: An Environmental History of the Twentieth-Century World . New York: Norton, 2000. A good overview of the history of industrial pollution. Mokyr, Joel . The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress . New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Pollard, Sidney . Typology of Industrialization Processes in the Nineteenth Century . Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic, 1990....

Education

Education   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
20,721 words
Illustration(s):
3

...as much as academic, criteria. During the Cultural Revolution ( 1966–1976 ), education was totally disrupted. Schools closed down altogether as students and faculty got caught up in the political campaigns of the period; and when they reopened in the 1970s, they focused more on political indoctrination than on academic training. A generation of people missed out on educations that could provide them with practical knowledge. After 1978 the Communist Party repudiated the complete politicization of education and rebuilt an academically based school...

Gender

Gender   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
10,252 words

...geese, or fetching water, training for the gender assignment of work also began at a young age with boys accompanying their fathers as shepherds to learn occupational skills. Girls similarly learned food preparation and spinning and weaving, but either sex could be assigned the monitoring of small children. The arrangement of work thus showed the arbitrariness of gender, and this arbitrariness lasted into the adult years, even as many regions of the world industrialized. Weaving, whether of silk, cotton, or wool, was gendered male in some regions of the world...

Medicine and Public Health

Medicine and Public Health   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
10,302 words
Illustration(s):
3

...insufficient disinfection was also a threat to public health. Significant levels of microbial contamination of food also represented a serious problem. The primary cause was contamination by pathogenic microorganisms, especially because of an uncontrolled market and ineffective monitoring of food imports. Assessment. The state of health of the individual often depends on the region in which he or she resides. In Uzbekistan, for example, the rural areas have a higher incidence of disease than the southern regions do. Disease types depend to a great degree on the...

Drugs and Narcotics

Drugs and Narcotics   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
13,072 words
Illustration(s):
1

...dominated by a handful of transnational corporations with headquarters in America and Europe. New drug scandals such as that over thalidomide in the early 1960s focused attention once more upon drug safety in America and Europe, leading to standardized clinical trials and monitoring systems for adverse drug side effects. However, laxer controls in developing nations permitted the sale of drugs banned or heavily restricted in the developed world. Such practices formed the basis for future challenges to the power of the transnational corporations. In short,...

Women

Women   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
26,278 words
Illustration(s):
5

...of colonial Africa for men and women to move out of their home areas. Usually women were allowed to migrate with male kin, because the colonialists believed that women were then controlled by those men. There are instances where African men supported the colonial efforts to monitor women's movements, so that women were under the scrutiny of both local men and European authorities who had ideas about women's proper residence and wished to restrict their behavior, occupation, and ability to travel. Analysis of the development of legal systems under...

Progressives and Progressivism in an Era of Reform

Progressives and Progressivism in an Era of Reform   Reference library

Maureen A. Flanagan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
10,414 words

...a threat to daily life and common welfare, as coal soot fell on food and in homes and was breathed in by children. They demanded immediate strict antismoke ordinances and inspectors to vigorously inspect and enforce the ordinances. The league urged all city residents to monitor pollution in their neighborhoods. 29 The Baltimore Women’s Civic League made smoke abatement a principal target for improving living and working conditions. 30 The cost-benefit argument usually won out over the health-first one. For political Progressives, good government also...

Wars on Poverty and the Building of the American Welfare State

Wars on Poverty and the Building of the American Welfare State   Reference library

David Torstensson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
11,752 words
Illustration(s):
2

...million individuals (part of 6.7 million families) of which over 70 percent were at or below the federal poverty line. 45 But in contrast to its role set out in the original Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 , the federal government now plays a reduced part in the funding and monitoring of national Community Action. Instead, much of the responsibility has since the 1990s been transferred to the state level. Created as a new federal agency by Congress in December 1974 , the Community Services Administration (CSA) replaced the disbanded OEO. Never part of the Executive...

The Sit-in Movement

The Sit-in Movement   Reference library

Christopher W. Schmidt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
12,213 words

...studying the sit-ins is the NAACP papers. 102 Although the organization often was not at the forefront of the sit-in movement, its national office and field offices closely monitored the unfolding events. The papers also include fascinating material on the struggles of the national office to identify a place for itself in this new phase of direct-action protest. Also closely monitoring the sit-in movement was the Southern Regional Council, a prominent voice of southern liberalism and a strong supporter of the sit-ins, as reflected in the research reports the...

The City Beautiful Movement

The City Beautiful Movement   Reference library

John D. Fairfield

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
13,006 words
Illustration(s):
3

...as beauty, sympathy, and social justice. 57 At the same time, the emerging profession redefined planning as a dynamic process of constant monitoring, revision, and guidance of the city’s growth, rather than the publication of a single dramatic plan geared toward enlisting public support. More process than result, city planning might have enlisted the entire citizenry in the creation, implementation, monitoring, and constant revision of a plan. Moreover, it might have followed the City Beautiful movement’s emphasis on the city as an organism and treated...

The New Deal

The New Deal   Reference library

Wendy L. Wall

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
15,667 words

...farm income rose by 50 percent between 1932 and 1936 . 39 Yet these benefits were not evenly distributed, and AAA policies often exacerbated the plight of tenant farmers and sharecroppers. New Deal officials relied heavily on county-level committees to set production quotas, monitor acreage-reduction contracts, and dispense federal payments. Agricultural Secretary Henry Wallace considered this decentralized approach to be “economic democracy in action,” but local committees were often dominated by the largest growers. 40 Large planters and landowners...

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