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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...largely scientific subjects (his ‘Chrestomathia’). A prospectus for the ‘University of London’ was issued, an appeal launched, a joint-stock company founded to manage the funds, and some distinguished academic staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’....

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...their capacity to play a part in the evolving drama of national politics. By 1776 this reading public was well established and the cultural and especially political implications of its composition were vigorously debated. What were its boundaries? Should the reading public be monitored, or learn to discipline itself? For the bookseller James *Lackington , the expansion in the reading public was a development to be welcomed, especially insofar as it reflected on his own achievements. In his self-aggrandizing Memoirs ( 1791 ), Lackington commented ‘that the...

Poland

Poland   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,235 words
Illustration(s):
1

...achievements was, as a result of the abolition of the Jesuits by the pope, the recuperation of their academic network by the Commission of National Education. This resulted in the first European example of a global and centralized organization of education. A pyramidal hierarchy placed the two “major schools” (universities) of Kraków and Vilna at the head of secondary and primary schools. There were now lay teachers along with ecclesiastical ones. Academic programs were refounded, and new textbooks were edited with the help of foreign scholars such as ...

publishing companies

publishing companies   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
1,185 words

...solely to publishing. Others, more adept at retailing, moved from publishing per se and concentrated on wholesaling and the remaindering of books. The majority of small eighteenth-century publishing companies were owned and run either by a single proprietor or by partners who monitored all the printing and publishing processes. Established companies active in literary publishing undertook everyday printing and regular reprints of popular works, usually to subsidize their fine-book publishing. Larger publishing firms with two or more active financial partners,...

Social Discipline

Social Discipline   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,223 words

...of the sixteenth century. Pastoral work thus became more systematic, rational, and organized; and parish records enabled greater supervision and administration of souls. The dispensation of sacraments and the performance of rituals created moments when the state church could monitor the behavior, and sometimes the beliefs, of the common people. Absence from sacraments hence marked individuals as nonconformists. The failure to receive Communion at least once a year would become the occasion of pastoral investigation and even official sanctions, as David...

19th century

19th century: 1800 - 1900  

Reference type:
Timeline
Current Version:
2012

...the four sons of the depraved Feodor Pavlovich Karamazov Dostoevsky, Fyodor Mikhailovich (1821–81) The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature 3 Literature Fiction Europe Russia 1880 1880 Johannes Brahms' Academic Festival Overture is performed first at Breslau university, which has conferred on him an honorary Ph.D. Academic Festival Overture The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music 5 Performing arts Music Germany 1880 1880 US author Lew Wallace publishes a historical novel, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ Wallace, Lew[is] (1827–1905) The Concise...

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