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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

33 The History of the Book in Poland

33 The History of the Book in Poland   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,081 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...atmosphere came to an end after the November Uprising of 1823 . In Warsaw, from 1801 the Society of the Friends of Science played an invaluable role in promoting academic publishing until its closure in 1831 . During the later 19 th century, without state support, the Polish School Society and the Mianowski Fund supported publishing both for schools and for research and academic communities. Influential private firms included the Glücksbergs for Polish history and literature, and the Arcts for textbooks, *music , *children’s book s, and, in the...

44 The History of the Book in Australia

44 The History of the Book in Australia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,048 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...of *New South Wales ) in Sydney in 1826 . Independent newspapers were increasing in number, and were less vulnerable to government interference: Bent’s defiance had been squashed in 1825 ; but when Governor Darling imprisoned the proprietors of the Australian and the Monitor in 1829 , the newspapers both continued publishing. The mid- 1820s saw an upsurge of original poetry in Sydney and Hobart newspapers. The first magazine, Robert Howe’s Australian Magazine (Sydney, 1821 ), was soon followed by the first book of verse by an Australian-born...

Irish Local and Family History

Irish Local and Family History   Quick reference

Kevin Whelan

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
4,945 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...at the Institute of Irish Studies, Queen's University, Belfast), and the Federation of Local History Societies (based at Rothe House, Kilkenny) produce useful newsletters, which list member societies and their activities; they also act in a coordinating, policy‐setting, and monitoring capacity. The Group for the Study of Irish Historic Settlement, established in 1971 , has also maintained a dialogue with local history societies through an annual rotating conference. A further distinctively Irish mode of exchange has been the phenomenally successful Summer...

Education

Education   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,267 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...largely scientific subjects (his ‘Chrestomathia’). A prospectus for the ‘University of London’ was issued, an appeal launched, a joint-stock company founded to manage the funds, and some distinguished academic staff appointed (predominantly from Scotland or abroad). Around 300 men were admitted as students in 1828 . Various forces within the English academic and ecclesiastical establishments strongly opposed the new institution, and it had to wait another eight years before it was granted a charter, which officially renamed it ‘University College, London’....

Publishing

Publishing   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,242 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...their capacity to play a part in the evolving drama of national politics. By 1776 this reading public was well established and the cultural and especially political implications of its composition were vigorously debated. What were its boundaries? Should the reading public be monitored, or learn to discipline itself? For the bookseller James *Lackington , the expansion in the reading public was a development to be welcomed, especially insofar as it reflected on his own achievements. In his self-aggrandizing Memoirs ( 1791 ), Lackington commented ‘that the...

oceanographic Institutes

oceanographic Institutes  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
Oceanography is a multidisciplinary science that requires large and expensive facilities such as research ships, powerful computers, and the sophisticated instrumentation required for sampling and ...
George Charles von Hevesy

George Charles von Hevesy  

(1885–1966)Hungarian-born Swedish chemist who was awarded the 1943 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on radioactive tracers.The son of a wealthy industrialist, Hevesy was educated at the ...
Hevesy, George Charles von

Hevesy, George Charles von (1885–1966)   Quick reference

Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History
Length:
311 words

...the chemical methods used by Hevesy proved unsuccessful. However, Hevesy realized that his apparent failure could be utilized to make an entirely new type of tracer. If radioactive lead and ordinary lead could not be distinguished chemically, the radioisotope could be used to monitor the path of lead through a complex system. By 1923 he had shown how radioactive lead could be used to label salts taken up by plants in solution; in 1934 , using radioactive phosphorus, Hevesy applied his tracer technique for the first time to animals. This use of artificial...

Communications and Media

Communications and Media   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
1,891 words

...prejudices and institutional arrangements that act as obstacles to women's participation, although the creation of a space for women as women might serve to perpetuate conventional notions of separate spheres. There is a growing number of international organizations devoted to monitoring and promoting women's representation in the media, such as the International Women's Media Foundation ( IWMF ), the Women's International News Gathering Service ( WINGS ), Women in Media and News ( WIMN ), and the Feminist International Radio Endeavour ( FIRE ). Links...

Brazil

Brazil   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,423 words
Illustration(s):
1

...opportunities, and guarantees of access to family planning and child care. In a frequently cited example, employers reluctant to assume the costs of pregnant employees monitor female employees' fertility, requiring pregnancy tests or a certificate of sterilization (which was legalized in 1994 ) as a condition of employment. Despite the need for intense mobilization and monitoring to ensure enforcement of the law, the CNDM fell prey to partisan manipulation and budget cuts in the 1990s. At the same time, women's grassroots movements lost momentum,...

Contraception

Contraception   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
6,852 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of the AID's population division. With an academic background in public health, Ravenholt had great faith in the mass delivery of biomedical technology. Convinced that the Third World masses needed and wanted his product, Ravenholt relentlessly pushed a “supply side” approach to family planning in which foreign governments were induced to accept massive supplies of new contraceptives without much attention to their other needs. Doubts over whether client states had health care systems adequate to the task of monitoring the side effects of IUDs and hormonal...

Female Life Cycle

Female Life Cycle   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
16,094 words
Illustration(s):
5

...female's sexual options. Some of the earliest art and writing that celebrate female sexuality in the world are the Venus figurines of ancient Europe and the Kama Sutra of India. Historically, in male-dominated systems, a female's sexuality was viewed as something to be tightly monitored and controlled. In ancient China, foot-binding of female children was common among wealthy families and was seen as a sign of total submission, as well as physical attraction. In other societies, as with the San people of Africa, sexual play and multiple partners throughout life...

Widows and Widowhood

Widows and Widowhood   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
9,514 words
Illustration(s):
2

...cities across Europe. In seventeenth‐century England, for example, overseers of the poor administered grants of relief in each parish and made it possible for widows to maintain independent living arrangements, sometimes by paying a portion of the rent. Poor‐relief officials monitored the widow's behavior and assisted her in finding employment, but she had to be seen to be contributing to her maintenance, for example, by spinning, doing lacework, or working as a laundrywoman. The widow's children might be employed in the fields as gleaners, or the officials...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
8,873 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with new forms of consumption and sexuality. Large numbers of stores cater to the Islamic chic fashion, which can also be purchased online. Scholars and tourists have noticed the liberating and concealing effect of the hijab on young lovers in a society that rigorously monitors premarital behavior. Egypt remains a society where nearly all women marry, engagement generally precedes courtship, and premarital sex is taboo. Although the Internet and new venues for consumption (malls, new cafés) provide alternatives for meeting prospective mates,...

hedge schools

hedge schools   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
249 words

...in classics and modern languages. Such books as were used were often simply what lay to hand, e.g. religious literature or novels. Children were taught individually, though William Carleton , himself a hedge school pupil and teacher, claimed that a system close to the monitorial was quite common by the early 19th century. Kenneth...

No Child Left Behind

No Child Left Behind   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
842 words

...the “achievement gap”—defined as the disproportionate literacy rates between white and “nonwhite” students in public schools. The academic achievement of Caucasian and African American students in particular suggest that students in public schools are not receiving the same education even within the same school. The No Child Left Behind legislation is designed to close the achievement gap through accountability by monitoring the annual state-generated test scores of all students in grades three through eight and certain high school courses. States must...

Asmal, Kader

Asmal, Kader (1934)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
844 words

...Asmal, Kader ( 1934 – ) , South African academic, human rights campaigner, and respected veteran of the African National Congress (ANC) in exile, was born in Stanger, a small rural town in what is now KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Asmal was a founder of the British and Irish antiapartheid movements. He was also an academic, who taught law for almost three decades at Trinity College Dublin, during his exile from South Africa. In the broad array of constituencies and opinions that has historically constituted the ANC, Asmal has consistently stood for liberal...

Bioethics

Bioethics   Reference library

Susan E. Lederer and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
927 words

...American men (the Tuskegee Experiment ) shocked the public and the U.S. Congress. In the wake of public hearings, President Richard M. Nixon in July 1974 signed the National Research Act, requiring institutions receiving federal aid to form institutional review boards to monitor proposals involving human research subjects. The act also created a National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research to develop guidelines to protect human participants in biomedical research. Including physicians, lawyers, clergy,...

Pacific Islands–Australian relations

Pacific Islands–Australian relations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,331 words

...New Guinean issue. Although New Zealand took the lead in brokering a truce, Australia contributed most of the ‘peace dividend’ and Australian personnel are the largest component of the peace-monitoring teams. The collapse of government in Solomon Islands in 2000 prompted similar Australian involvement in a cease-fire and disarmament initiative, and in monitoring the peace. Prompted by interventions there and in East Timor , some Island governments want to commit Australia to take an active role in Irian Jaya. Australian scholars have therefore made...

Bunche, Ralph Johnson

Bunche, Ralph Johnson (b. 7 August 1903)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,353 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Colored People Records, Library of Congress This continuing belief informed not only Bunche's activity with public organizations, such as the National Negro Congress, but also his academic work with the Carnegie Corporation's celebrated project on race relations in the United States led by the Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal. The latter also led to Bunche's most lasting academic work, later published as The Political Status of the Negro in the Age of FDR ( 1973 ), which contains a detailed analysis of the societal position of the African American and, as...

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