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academic monitoring

The process of observing students' academic progress in one or more subject over a period of time. It is used by teachers to compare the performance of a particular student to that of ...

India Design Council

India Design Council (2009)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Modern Design (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
510 words

...Design Council since its inception, and it launched an important initiative in 2015 , the Design Education Quality Mark. This was a means of benchmarking the national performance of higher education institutions: it sought to set and maintain academic standards, programme design and approval, as well as monitoring and review. The India Design Council has worked closely with the UK’s Quality Assurance Agency (AAA), supported by the British...

Primitivism

Primitivism   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,835 words
Illustration(s):
1

...deliberate juxtapositions of contemporary art, child art, naive art, medieval German woodcuts, Russian folk prints and Bavarian votive paintings, as well as assorted exotica. In turn, the art of Paul Klee must be seen as a crossing-point of impulses, to an extent carefully monitored, from the art of children and the mentally ill, as well as the art of Africa and the Pacific. Ernst's affinity for the arts of Easter Island and of the Pueblo Indians of the southwestern USA co-existed with that for German Romanticism and Dada. While such juxtapositions,...

Conservation and restoration

Conservation and restoration   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
16,611 words
Illustration(s):
3

...includes lighting, heating, relative humidity control, mounting methods, storage materials and air pollution. Having specified the optimum conditions, measurements must be made to decide if methods of control need to be introduced. Attempts to improve the environment should be monitored to check that they are effective. This section outlines those aspects of the environment that can be harmful to artefacts at inappropriate levels. They have been considered in a general sense, and an attempt has been made to recommend levels that will be suitable for mixed...

Drawing

Drawing   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
13,122 words
Illustration(s):
2

...At the beginning of the 19th century the discovery that wood products could be used for making paper and that paper itself could be formed in continuous lengths changed papermaking from a skilled handicraft into a modern industry. From the end of the 20th century the computer monitor began to replace paper as the most common support for drawing. 2. Media and tools. The interplay between supports and media presents the artist with an almost infinite variety of creative possibilities. Identifying media and interpreting their sequence of application is not an...

Postcolonialism

Postcolonialism   Reference library

Lucrezia Cippitelli

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,663 words

...leading to the struggle against empires. Postcolonialism and Academic Criticism. The late 1970s and early 1980s mark the incursion of these radical perspectives, outcomes of the independence struggles all over the world, into the Western university system. The academic world was until then dominated by European knowledge, organized into specialized disciplines and aligned with the idea of progress and Modernity. The arrival of academics from all over the Global South in the main Western academic institutions, mainly Anglo-Saxon, generated a new context of...

Tanzania, United Republic of

Tanzania, United Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,374 words

...of Tanzanian art for foreign galleries, monitoring standards of Makonde sculpture and encouraging the purchase of wood-carvings by hotels and visitor centers. Local and international exhibitions were also organized by such societies in Tanzania as the Society of East African Artists, the Tanzania Arts Society, the Tanzanian Crafts Council and the Tanzania Society of African Culture. These bodies often used temporary exhibition spaces provided by hotels and foreign embassies. In contrast to training in the non-academic popular and traditional arts provided by...

Television

Television   Reference library

Horace Newcomb

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,297 words

...educated generations of faculty, forged curricula, and filled academic journals. Humanistic approaches to television were fugitive in nature, often appearing in general readership magazines such as the Nation or Saturday Review . Critical, analytic work focused on textual analysis, aesthetic evaluation, or interpretive studies did not appear in academic journals, even in the increasingly available venues devoted to the study of film. Film studies had begun to find a place in academic settings during this same period, largely because “film as art”...

Hypertext

Hypertext   Reference library

George P. Landow

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,423 words

...be rapidly duplicated, transmitted, and searched or otherwise manipulated. This electronic coding also permits the creation of the link. Reading a fully hypertextualized version of the present essay, one encounters it on (or by means of) some electronic device—usually a computer monitor or projector—and, at points where links indicate the availability of additional information, one finds some sign of that fact: differently colored text, underlining, icons, changes in the on-screen appearance of one’s pointing device, or the like. Using a touch screen, computer...

Synaesthesia

Synaesthesia   Reference library

John Gage

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,590 words

...that year. The heyday of the scientific study of synaesthesia was between about 1880 and 1930 ; it has only recently become accessible and interesting to neurologists and experimental psychologists, because of the development of more exact and sophisticated techniques of monitoring the activity of parts of the brain ( Cytowic, 1993 ; Harrison and Baron-Cohen, 1994 ). It can be no accident that the earliest phase of intense scientific interest in synaesthesia coincides with the European Symbolist movement for, although there have been reported instances...

Performance Art

Performance Art   Reference library

Kelly Dennis and Amelia Jones

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,607 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in a sink full of water until he choked. The audience witnessed Burden’s near drowning via a series of monitors on stage; Burden himself, however, was only a short distance from the audience, concealed only by a row of lockers. The audience could hear Burden choke and gasp nearby while witnessing the event on the monitor, and they were thus denied the illusory comfort of the fully mediated distance television appears to offer. The use of video monitors in Gina Pane’s Money, Meat, Fire ( 1971 ) and in the context of other self-abusive, “live” performances...

Experimentalism

Experimentalism   Reference library

Benjamin Piekut, George E. Lewis, and Jeffrey Skoller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,296 words

...through the inherent mutability of the electronic signal that has no fixed image trace that can be seen or projected, but rather a signal that can be transformed in multiple ways through a series of processors from video camera to video playback machines and finally display monitors. In this sense there is no inherent quality to video since it can be transformed through signal processing into any kind of image. Spielmann and other video theorists have argued that, unlike film, video lacks an essential imagistic specificity that has defined artistic media in...

Improvisation

Improvisation   Reference library

Philip A. Alperson, Garry L. Hagberg, and George E. Lewis

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,106 words

...be as little precomposed pattern material as possible—no prearranged sequences, scales, chord models, dynamics, timbres, motives, rhythm patterns, or other material. At the same time, improvisors are interested in both processes and product, since the practice involves close monitoring of outcomes in a recursive rather than simply iterative way. One finds, following Andrew Pickering and Karen Barad, an understanding of agency as an emergent improvisative achievement of a specific interaction, rather than an essential or intrinsic attribute of subjects....

Cavell, Stanley

Cavell, Stanley   Reference library

Timothy Gould and William Rothman

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
12,141 words

...considering the issues of form as existing apart from its designs on a possible audience, evolving as a mere end in itself. Cavell has presented treatments of such topics as intention (Cavell, 1969 ), expression ( 1979 ), metaphor, and representation (Cavell, 1969 ). He has monitored the shifting ground between criticism and its objects. More recently, his work on Shakespeare, film, and opera has again led him back to a further consideration of the notion of form. As early as Cavell’s ( 1969 , pp. 180–212) essay “Music Discomposed,” his work mounts a...

Television

Television   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
7,781 words

...educated generations of faculty, forged curricula, and filled academic journals. Humanistic approaches to television were fugitive in nature, often appearing in general readership magazines such as the Nation or Saturday Review . Critical, analytic work focused on textual analysis, aesthetic evaluation, or interpretive studies did not appear in academic journals, even in the increasingly available venues devoted to the study of film. Film studies had begun to find a place in academic settings during this same period, largely because “film as art”...

Performance Art

Performance Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,630 words
Illustration(s):
1

...his face in a sink full of water until he choked. The audience witnessed Burden's near drowning via a series of monitors on stage; Burden himself, however, was only a short distance from the audience, concealed by a row of lockers. The audience could hear Burden choke and gasp nearby while witnessing the event on the monitor, and were thus denied the illusory comfort of the fully mediated distance television appears to offer. The use of video monitors in Gina Pane 's Money, Meat, Fire ( 1971 ) and in the context of other self-abusive, “live” performances...

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