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Korean War

Korean War (1950–1953)   Reference library

Roy K. Flint and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...weakened Eighth Army in the main attack against the North Korean capital of P’yongyang without adequate combat support. As the supporting attack, he planned another powerful amphibious assault by X Corps to strike the east coast port of Wonsan on 20 October. Although the Eighth Army advanced rapidly toward P’yongyang against light resistance, the amphibious attack by X Corps was six days late landing in its objective area because mine sweepers had to clear an elaborate minefield. On 11 October, Wonsan fell to a South Korean corps, almost two weeks before the...

Afro-Atlantic Culture: On the Live Dialogue Between Africa and the Americas

Afro-Atlantic Culture: On the Live Dialogue Between Africa and the Americas   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...of Colored People ( NAACP ) as a model for the ANC. The Black Consciousness Movement of the 1970s, which is best known for the martyrdom of its spokesman Stephen Biko , embraced the influence of Eldridge Cleaver's Soul on Ice ( 1967 ), Alex Haley's The Autobiography of Malcolm X ( 1965 ), Charles Hamilton's and Stokely Carmichael's Black Power ( 1967 ), the theology of James Cone, and Frantz Fanon 's The Wretched of the Earth ( 1963 ). Hence, both its place in the Atlantic economy and its political commonalities with the American settler colonies have...

South Africa

South Africa   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,584 words
Illustration(s):
3

...again intensified, largely due to the militancy of high school and college-age students. Student activists, among them the popular Stephen Biko , promoted Black Consciousness, a philosophy of black pride and unity influenced by the ideas of black American leaders such as Malcolm X and by African Négritude thinkers. In June 1976 elementary and secondary school students marched in Soweto in protest of apartheid educational policies. At this demonstration, police fired into the crowd, killing several children and injuring many more. The uprising then spread...

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy   Reference library

Lawrence Freedman, Timothy J. Lynch, George Bunn, Timothy J. Lynch, Joseph M. Siracusa, and Joseph M. Siracusa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Nike-X ABM system would continue, but that it was not yet ready to be deployed. The Nike-X was basically an army ABM system, linking multiple-array radar with an interceptor missile. Subsequently, however, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Earle Wheeler, told the House Appropriations Committee that the United States should immediately deploy a light missile defense, though he acknowledged that the Joint Chiefs preferred a heavy ABM city defense system for “the highest density populated areas.” Wheeler insisted that the Nike-X was ready...

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Africa: An Interpretation

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Africa: An Interpretation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,195 words
Illustration(s):
1

...has succeeded in forcing several transnational pharmaceutical companies to lower prices for brand name drugs. A few Third World firms now produce less expensive generics, including a single-dose combination pill, which the World Health Organization ( WHO ) recommended in its “3 x 5” program to bring treatment to three million sufferers by the year 2005 . One pill per day is more patient-friendly than the multiple single-drug doses required by the brand name products. The United Nations’ Global Fund to combat AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria that will...

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the

Interwar Period, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the   Reference library

Justus D. Doenecke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Nations, a body that included both an assembly in which all members had an equal voice and also a council composed of five permanent members—the United States, Britain, France, Italy, and Japan—and four other nations elected by the assembly. Crucial to the covenant was Article X, by which members pledged themselves to “respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League.” Members would submit to the league all disputes threatening war and levy economic and military...

Bush, George W.

Bush, George W. (1946)   Reference library

Stanley A. Renshon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...that same year; and gave the go-ahead for North Korea to attack South Korea in 1950 . These developments raised in the starkest terms the question of how the United States should respond. The answer was containment, as outlined in George F. Kennan's famous article, signed “Mr. X,” published in Foreign Affairs in 1947 . He wrote, “The main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of a long-term patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies” that counters “Soviet pressure against the free...

Cold War (1945–1991)

Cold War (1945–1991)   Reference library

David F. Schmitz, Zachary Karabell, William H. Chafe, Jonathan Nashel, and David Milne

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... totalitarianism. Scholars who argued from this perspective came to be known as the “orthodox” (or “traditional”) school and generally viewed U.S. actions as being virtuous and sincere. George F. Kennan , in his Long Telegram to the State Department and later writing as “Mr. X” in his article The Sources of Soviet Conduct ” in Foreign Affairs ( July 1947 ), remains the classic formulator of this argument. He noted that Soviet actions were inexorably expansionist and antidemocratic and posed a very real threat to the United States and its allies. The...

Sports Sponsorship

Sports Sponsorship   Reference library

Scott ELDRIDGE II

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Surf Open. The X Games Asia, which have been hosted by South Korea, Thailand, and Malaysia, were hosted for the first time by China (in Shanghai) in May 2007 . 2008 , though, marked the first time that China hosted the world’s most prestigious sporting event: the Olympics. Along with the sports competition came the competition (and controversy) of sports sponsorship. The big sporting events leading up to the Olympics provided China with practice for the main event. Kia Motors, the South Korean automaker, was just one sponsor of the 2007 X Games Asia, which...

Education, Compulsory

Education, Compulsory   Reference library

Jean W. YAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Compulsory education. Retrieved from http://baike.baidu.com/view/165043.htm Economy Research Office, Party School of the Central Committee of C.P.C. (2006). 2005, China education development report . [2005, 中国教育发展报告 ‎]. Beijing: Social Sciences Academic Press. Xiong, X. J. (2006). Compulsory Education in Contemporary China . [ 中国近代义务教育研究 ‎] Wuhan, China: Huazhong Normal University Press. ...

Education, Special

Education, Special   Reference library

Jean W. YAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Journal of Special Education , 21 (1), 77–86. Piao, Y. X. (1996). Dictionary of Special Education . Beijing: Huaxia Press. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. Workshop for improving disability data for policy use. (2003). Retrieved December 24, 2008, from http://www.unescap.org/stat/meet/widd/paperchina3.htm Yang, H. , & Wang, H. (1994). Special education in China. The Journal of Special Education , 28 (1), 93–105. Ye, L. Y. & Piao, Y. X. (1995). The study of special education . Fuzhou, China: Fujian...

♂ Yuán Lóngpíng

♂ Yuán Lóngpíng (1930)   Reference library

Lawrence R. SULLIVAN

Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography (Volume 4)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,418 words
Illustration(s):
1

...production in China and other parts of the world has been dramatic. The number of acres planted in hybrid rice in China increased from zero in 1974 to 17 million in 1983 , accounting for 20 percent of the country's total rice acreage; in recent years that figure has risen to 50 percent and accounts for 60 percent of the country's total rice crop. With average increases 20 percent higher than conventional rice, total rice output in China, which in 1950 was 5.7 billion tons, rose to 19.5 billion tons in 2012 with annual increases large enough to feed 60...

Pudong New District

Pudong New District (2007)   Reference library

ZHOU Guanqi

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Shanghai: Shanghai She Hui Ke Xue Chu Ban She. Wang, H. (1992). Pudong: Li shi he dang dai fa zhan [Pudong: History and recent development]. Shanghai: Shanghai She Hui Ke Xue Chu Ban She. Wang, X. (2007). Liao jie Pudong: shi wu nian de fa zhan li cheng [Understanding Pudong: After 15 years’ development]. Shanghai: Shanghai Ren Min Chu Ban She. Yao, X. (1995). Pudong jue qi yu chang san jiao fa zhan [Rise of Pudong and development in the Yangtze River delta]. Shanghai: Shanghai Ke Ji Chu Ban She. Yubing Zhai . (1997). Pudong New Area development...

Project Hope

Project Hope   Reference library

Jean W. YAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

... Gu, X. J. (2006). Annual report to the 4th CYDF Board of Trustees. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from http://www.cydf.org.cn/shiyong/html/lm_138/2006-09-20/154125.htm Liu, Fei . (2004). 15 years of Project Hope. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from http://www.edu.cn/20041119/3121055.shtml Nankai University, Project Hope Evaluation Team. (2006). Evaluation report of the effectiveness of Project Hope. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from http://www.cydf.org.cn/shiyong/html/lm_134/2006-09-20/151630.htm Xu Yongguang . (1999). Juan...

Climate Change—Export Emissions

Climate Change—Export Emissions   Reference library

Christopher WEBER

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Retrieved February 20, 2009, from, http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/invs1.html Peters, G. P. & Hertwich, E. G. (2008). CO 2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy. Environmental Science and Technology , 42 , 1401–1407. Peters, G. P. , Weber, C. L. , Guan, D. , & Hubacek, K. (2007). China’s growing CO 2 emissions—a race between increasing consumption and efficiency gains. Environmental Science and Technology , 41 , 5939–5944. Streets, D. , Yu, C. , Bergin, M. , Wang, X. , & Carmichael, G. ...

Bohai Economic Region

Bohai Economic Region   Reference library

ZHOU Guanqi

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Zone]. Tianjin, China: Zhong Guo Hai Yang Chu Ban She [Ocean Publishing]. Lu, X. , Yang, Y. , & Zhen, W. (1997). Bo Hai Jing Ji Quan Yu Chang San Jiao Fa Zhan [Bohai economic circle and the development in the Yangtze River delta]. Beijing: Zhong Guo Jin Rong Jing Ji Chu Ban She [China Finance and Economy Publishing]. Ma, Y. , & Huang, W. (2006). Tianjing: The pearl in Bohai Bay . Beijing: Foreign Language Publishing. Pan, W. , Yao, Y. , & Ning, X. (2006). Bo Hai Jing Ji Qu Fa Zhan Bao Gao (2006) [Development report in Bohai...

♂ Lǐ Níng

♂ Lǐ Níng (1963)   Reference library

FAN Hong and LIU Li

Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography (Volume 4)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,373 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and economic prosperity, as well as being an emblem of national resurgence. Every victory for a Chinese athlete is a victory for China as well. Sources: Fan Hong. (2008). China's Olympic dream. In Fan Hong, Duncan Mackay, & Karen Christensen (Eds.), China gold (pp. ix–x). Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing Group. Fan Hong. (2009). Olympic games—history. In Linsun Cheng (Ed.), Berkshire encyclopedia of China (pp. 1635–1641). Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing Group. Business Career Instead of becoming a coach after his retirement...

Energy Industry

Energy Industry   Reference library

Robert GALE

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Policy , 28 , 335–347. Chang, F. K. (2001). Chinese energy and Asian security. Orbis , 45 , 211–241. International Energy Agency. (2008). Retrieved December 4, 2008, from: http://www.iea.org Liu, X. (2006). China’s energy security and its grand strategy. Policy Analysis Brief . Muscatine, IA: Stanley Foundation. Retrieved November 20, 2008, from http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/resources.cfm?ID=56 Weidou, N. , & Johansson, T. B. (2004). Energy for sustainable development in China. Energy Policy , 32 , 1225–1229. Zhang Shi-qiu. (2000)....

♂ Qián Xuésēn

♂ Qián Xuésēn (1911–2009)   Reference library

Xiaobing LI

Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography (Volume 4)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,218 words
Illustration(s):
2

...military strategists of Chiang Kai-shek ( 1887–1975 ), leader of the Republic of China ( ROC ) in the mainland ( 1927–1949 ) and on Taiwan ( 1949–1975 ). In 1947 , Qian worked as a professor at MIT while designing an intercontinental space plane. His work would inspire the X-20 Dyna-Soar, which would later influence the development of the American space shuttle. In 1949 , Qian became the first director of the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Jet Propulsion Center at Caltech. He became a US citizen in 1950 . Qian Xuesen served as a consultant to the United...

Township and Village Enterprises

Township and Village Enterprises   Reference library

Louis AUGUSTIN-JEAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Hong Kong: Centre for Asian Pacific Studies. Buck, J. L. (1937). Land utilization in China . Nanjing, China: University of Nanking. Byrd, W. A. , & Lin, Q. S. (Ed.). (1990). China’s rural industry: Structure, development and reform . Washington, DC: World Bank. Fei, X. T. (1989). Rural development in China: Prospect and retrospect . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kelliher, D. (1992). Peasant power in China: The era of reform (1979–1989) . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Nolan, P. , & Dong, F. R. (Eds.). (1990). Market forces...

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