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Spatial and Temporal Interdependence

Spatial and Temporal Interdependence   Reference library

Michael Colaresi and Jude C. Hays

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,289 words
Illustration(s):
3

...problem to the extent that we are unsure of the specification of x Dt . For a pure moving average process, what is observed ( x Dt ) is hypothesized to have a distinct dynamic effect from what is unobserved ( ε ‎ t ) in a given model (for additional examples, see Box and Jenkins 1984 ). Therefore, for autoregressive processes of order p , where p is the number of lagged dependent variables, the covariate effects are captured by multipliers, not single coefficients. A one unit change in x dt will have a total impact on Y i → j , t of . For example, an...

The Interaction of Theory and Data

The Interaction of Theory and Data   Reference library

James D. Morrow

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
5,746 words

...899–912. Waltz, K.N. 1979. Theory of International Politics . New York: Random House. Ward, M.D. , Siverson, R.M. , and Cao, X. 2007. Disputes, Democracies, and Dependencies: A Reexamination of the Kantian Peace. American Journal of Political Science (51) (3), 583–601. Weede, E. 1976. Overwhelming Preponderance as a Pacifying Condition among Contiguous Asian Dyads, 1950–1969. Journal of Conflict Resolution (20) (3), 395–411. 1 See Singer ( 1975 ) for a sharp-tongued and often humorous response to those who criticized his view of the value of...

International Organization and Environmental Governance

International Organization and Environmental Governance   Reference library

Joshua William Busby

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
17,083 words

..., accessed August 20, 2009. Grist.org . At www.grist.org/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Mongabay.com . At www.mongabay.com/ , accessed August 20, 2009. New Scientist. At www.newscientist.com/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Real Climate.org . At www.realclimate.org/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Science. At www.sciencemag.org/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Scientific American. At www.scientificamerican.com/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Switchboard, NRDC blog. At http:/switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Third World Network...

The Past and Future of the Scientific Study of International Processes

The Past and Future of the Scientific Study of International Processes   Reference library

Zeev Maoz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,472 words

...The Political System , 2nd edn. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Elman-Fendius, M. (ed.) 1997. Paths to Peace: Is Democracy the Answer? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Enders, W. , and Su, X. 2007. Rational Terrorists and Optimal Network Structure. Journal of Conflict Resolution (51) (1), 33–57. Farber, H.S. , and Gowa, J. 1995. Polities and Peace. International Security (20) (2), 123–45. Fearon, J.D. 1995. Rationalist Explanations of War. International Organization (49) (3), 379–414. Filson, D. , and Werner, S. 2002. A Bargaining Model of War and Peace:...

Identity in International Relations

Identity in International Relations   Reference library

Felix Berenskoetter

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,159 words

...step in constructivist IR theory” ( Cedermann and Daase 2003 ). What an Identity Perspective Has to Offer Perhaps the most basic way to approach the concept is to say that the identity of X is the answer to the question: “Who/what is X?” Yet answers may differ depending on who is asked. We might decide that the answer which matters most is the one given by X itself (if it has a voice). Leaving aside for a moment that one may still get multiple answers, IR scholars seem to agree that, in the most basic reading, having an identity means having a sense of...

International Cooperation Theory

International Cooperation Theory   Reference library

Xinyuan Dai and Duncan Snidal

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,931 words

...Press. Dai, X. (2002a) Information Systems in Treaty Regimes. World Politics 54 (4), 405–36. Dai, X. (2002b) Political Regimes and International Trade: The Democratic Difference Revisited. American Political Science Review 96 (1), 159–65. Dai, X. (2005) Why Comply? The Domestic Constituency Mechanism. International Organization 59 (2), 363–98. Dai, X. (2006a) Dyadic Myth and Monadic Advantage: Conceptualizing the Effect of Democratic Constraints on Trade. Journal of Theoretical Politics 18 (3), 267–96. Dai, X. (2006b) The...

Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking

Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking   Reference library

Nadejda K. Marinova

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,259 words

...Human Trafficking in South Asia. Forced Migration Review (25), 16. Zhang, S.X. (2007) Smuggling and Trafficking in Human Beings: All Roads Lead to America . Westport: Praeger. Zhang, S.X. (2008) Chinese Human Smuggling Organizations: Families, Social Networks, and Cultural Imperatives . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Zhang, S.X. (2011) Woman Pullers: Pimping and Sex Trafficking in a Mexican Border City. Crime, Law and Social Change (56) (5), 509–28. Zhang, S.X. , Chin, K. , and Miller, J. (2007) Women's Participation in Chinese...

Systemic Theories of Conflict

Systemic Theories of Conflict   Reference library

Karen Rasler and William R. Thompson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,981 words

...is also expected to be associated with cross-cutting pressures. State A may be in a dispute over issue X with states B and C, but A and C’s agreement on issue Y makes it less likely that the X dispute will be allowed to escalate (for fear of losing the advantages derived from the Y agreement). On both counts, bipolarity, it is argued, is less attractive. With only two powers closely monitoring every move the other power makes, a dispute over issue X is likely to spill over into issue Y as well. Multipolarity is therefore preferred because conflict...

Progress in the Democratic Peace Research Agenda

Progress in the Democratic Peace Research Agenda   Reference library

Steve Chan

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,839 words

... 20 (4), 183–96. Enterline, A.J. (1998) Regime Change and Interstate Conflict, 1816–1992. Political Research Quarterly 51 (2), 385–409. Enterline, A.J. , and Greig, J.M. (2005) Beacons of Hope? The Impact of Imposed Democracy on Regional Peace, Democracy and Prosperity. Journal of Politics 67 (4), 1075–98. Eyerman, J. , and Hart, R.A., Jr . (1996) An Empirical Test of the Audience Cost Proposition. Journal of Conflict Resolution 40 (4), 597–616. Farber, H.S. , and Gowa, J. (1995) Polities and Peace. International Security 20 (2),...

What is Development?

What is Development?   Reference library

Gustavo Esteva

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,452 words

...huge increases in social inequality but because it has become dangerous, by compromising everybody’s future” (p. x). And he seems to anticipate the global crisis which became entirely evident in 2008 when he writes: “Unless we act in good time against both these articles of faith, it will be under the pressure of the catastrophes they have set off that we will have to rethink our way of life and the foundations of our economic science” (p. x). The world is today reacting “under the pressure of the catastrophes,” both natural and social. The crisis has been...

World Society, World-Polity Theory, and International Relations

World Society, World-Polity Theory, and International Relations   Reference library

John Boli, Selina Gallo-Cruz, and Matt Mathias

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,519 words

...Stanford University Press, pp. 169–97. Luhmann, N. (1997) Globalization or World Society: How to Conceive of Modern Society? International Review of Sociology (7) (1), 67–79. Luo, X. (2000) The Rise of the Social Development Model: Institutional Construction of International Technology Organizations, 1856–1993. International Studies Quarterly (44) (1), 147–75. Luo, X. (2006) The Spread of a “Human Resources” Culture: Institutional Individualism and the Rise of Personal Development Training. In G.S. Drori , J.W. Meyer , and H. Hwang (eds.) ...

What is Theory?

What is Theory?   Reference library

Patrick Thaddeus Jackson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,099 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Global Security Matrix. At www.watsoninstitute.org/globalsecuritymatrix/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Features efforts by IR theorists to identify and conceptualize security threats; draws on a diverse set of theoretical perspectives. Theory Talks. At www.theory-talks.org/ , accessed August 20, 2009. An archive of interviews and speeches by prominent IR theorists. Covers a variety of approaches. The IR Theory Website. At www.irtheory.com/ , accessed August 20, 2009. Wiki-like collection of thumbnail definitions of different IR theories. Focused mainly...

War Termination

War Termination   Reference library

H.E. Goemans

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,425 words

...:20), all either implicitly or explicitly argue that war ends when the loser submits to the victor’s terms (see Carroll 1980 :50–2). The argument that war ends when the loser cries uncle often implicitly presupposed that the war aims of the belligerents remain fixed during the war; in other words, war could have only two possible outcomes: victory or defeat. If we spell out this assumption, the argument would go something like this: war starts because one side wants to acquire X and the other side refuses to give it up. When one side no longer wants X,...

Reform in China and Russia: A Comparative Perspective

Reform in China and Russia: A Comparative Perspective   Reference library

Mariya Y. Omelicheva and John James Kennedy

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,962 words

...1993 . Washington, DC: World Bank, pp. 63–94. Mishra, P. (2006) China’s New Left Calls for a Social Alternative. International Herald Tribune (Oct. 13). At www.nytimes.com/2006/10/13/world/asia/13iht-left.3148238.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=China%E2%80%99s%20New%20Left%20Calls%20for%20a%20Social%20Alternative&st=cse , accessed Aug. 2009. Montinola, G. , Yingyi, Q. , and Weingast, B. (1995) Federalism Chinese Style: The Political Basis for Economic Success in China. World Politics 48 (1), 50–81. Murrell, P. (1993) What Is Shock Therapy? What Did It...

Global Knowledge Society and Information Technology

Global Knowledge Society and Information Technology   Reference library

Shalini Venturelli

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
8,986 words

...for most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries – encompassing economics, anthropology, sociology, and political science – instead of confronting or accounting for the role of knowledge generation and adoption in social change, tended to assume or explain it away as a mysterious X factor running in the background of shifting market mechanisms, cultural and social transformation, and political and geopolitical processes. From Adam Smith and David Ricardo to Max Weber , Karl Marx , and Bronisław Malinowski , the relevance of knowledge generation to...

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency

Insurgency and Counterinsurgency   Reference library

David J. Betz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,693 words

...C. (2005) Another Bloody Century . London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Gurr, T.R. (1971) Why Men Rebel . Princeton: Princeton University Press. Gwynn, C. (1934) Imperial Policing . London: Macmillan. Hammes, T.X. (2004a) War Evolves into the Fourth Generation. Journal of Contemporary Security Policy 26 (2), 84–102. Hammes, T.X. (2004b) The Sling and the Stone . Osceola, WI: Zenith Press. Hoffman, B. (2006) Inside Terrorism . New York: Columbia University Books. Hoffman, F. (2007) Conflict in the Twenty-first Century . Arlington: Potomac...

The Spatial Analysis of War

The Spatial Analysis of War   Reference library

Clionadh Raleigh, Frank D.W. Witmer, and John O’Loughlin

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,825 words
Illustration(s):
2

...analyses. Centrographic methods describe the distribution of events over a geographic space. The mean center, standard distance, and standard ellipse are the spatial equivalent to the univariate mean and standard deviation measures. The mean center is calculated by averaging the x and y coordinate values separately, and optionally weighting by population (to yield the mean population center) or other variables of interest. The standard distance and ellipse measures are used to describe the spread of the data around the mean center. The standard distance...

Terrorism and Counterterrorism on the Internet

Terrorism and Counterterrorism on the Internet   Reference library

Gabriel Weimann

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,032 words

... (ed.) Homeland Security Handbook . New York: McGraw Hill, pp. 1131–48. Schmid, A. , and de Graaf, J. (1982) Violence as Communication . Beverly Hills: Sage. Swartz, J. (2005) Terrorists’ Use of Internet Spreads. USA Today , Feb. 20. At www.usatoday.com/money/industries/technology/2005-02-20-cyber-terror-usat_x.htm , accessed June 2009. Talbot, D. (2005) Terror’s Server. Technology Review 108(2), 46–52. Thomas, D. (2002) Cyber Terrorism and Critical Infrastructure Protection: Statement to the Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management...

Transnational Communities and Diasporic Politics

Transnational Communities and Diasporic Politics   Reference library

Gallia Lindenstrauss

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,116 words

...real homeland, and suffer from at least partial social exclusion in the host state. Cohen states that his typology is sometimes ambiguous with regard to specific diasporas, as they often take multiple forms, and it is not uncommon that a diaspora will change over time ( Cohen 1997:x–xii , 57–8). While it seems that voluntary migration to developed countries is more widespread than migration among developing states, in fact the latter phenomenon, albeit understudied, is also very significant ( DeParle 2007 ; Economist 2008 :12). Another aspect to which notice...

Poliheuristic Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis

Poliheuristic Theory and Foreign Policy Analysis   Reference library

Steven B. Redd, David Brulé, and Alex Mintz

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,753 words

...(intradimensional) process of information acquisition. Hogarth ( 1987 ) points out that the disadvantage of this rule is that it can yield choices that are inconsistent. Specifically, it can lead to intransitive choices which take the form of X is preferred to Y, Y is preferred to Z, but Z is preferred to X. In essence, the lexicographic rule implies that the order in which options appear can determine the choices that are made, rather than the true preferences expressed by the decision maker (ibid.). We will return to this point of order sensitivity...

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