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Social Justice, Anti-Poverty Work, and Religion

Social Justice, Anti-Poverty Work, and Religion   Reference library

Lara Rusch, R. Khari Brown, Ronald E. Brown, and Francine Banner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,930 words
Illustration(s):
3

...soup kitchen, clothing, and homeless programs engaging in community organizing relative to those that provide such programs. That being said, the estimates for Figure 1 are based upon the following formula: P r ( y = 1 | X ¯ , m a x , x k )   −   P r ( y = 1 | X ¯ , m i n , x k ) in which Y represents community organizing and X represents soup kitchen, clothing, and homeless programs. 18. The probability estimates listed in Figures 2 and 3 are derived from logit regression analyses in which the community organizing, clothing, homeless, and food...

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States   Reference library

Kristi Winters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,166 words

...“God bless the United States of America,” being a person of faith—especially of Protestant Christian faith—was almost synonymous with being a patriot. The 21st century is proving to be very different from the 20th in that regard, however. After years of exceptionally high levels of religious adherence and identity, the latter part of the 20th century saw the start of a trend: increasing numbers of Americans reported they had no religious affiliation when asked by pollsters. Those without a religious identification are now the second largest so-called...

Religious Regulation in France

Religious Regulation in France   Reference library

Paul Christopher Manuel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
12,236 words

...from the Vatican. Pope Pius X penned four encyclicals to the French from 1906 to 1910 , including Vehementer Nos (On the French law of separation), Gravissimo Officii Munere (On French associations of worship), Une Fois Encore (On the separation of church and state), and Notre Charge Apostolique (Our apostolic charge). These encyclicals condemned what the pope understood to be the illegal and unilateral abrogation of the Concordat of 1801 and the antireligious and hostile tone of these legislative measures ( Pius X, 2017 ). Many traditional...

Religious Regulation in Ireland

Religious Regulation in Ireland   Reference library

Vesna Malešević

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
14,423 words

... 2005 ). It was not until 1992 that the restriction on information was found unconstitutional ( Lentin, 2013 ). New amendments were added making it possible to get information on termination of pregnancy and travel to other jurisdictions for the procedure. The controversial “X case” in the same year created a new precedent as a young woman of 14 was prevented from traveling to terminate pregnancy as a result of rape. The Supreme Court overturned the decision allowing the woman to travel if there was a serious threat to her life. The Regulation of...

Religious Regulation in Brazil

Religious Regulation in Brazil   Reference library

Claudia Cerqueira and Guadalupe Tuñón

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,906 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the bill first, the executive branch proposed the bill that was finally passed. 19. Moraes suspends law of Rondônia that prevented to charge ICMS of churches and temples 20. See for example, “Ensino religioso é obrigatório em 49% de escolas públicas, contra lei” ( http://oglobo.globo.com/ ). 21. The complete presentation can be found online at ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x6VzAAtXN9c ). 22. Afro-Brazilian religions in general have faced a wave of attacks due to religious intolerance: their houses of worship, referred to as “terreiros,” have been...

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research   Reference library

Jörg Stolz and Pascal Tanner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,268 words

...decline, a theory that depicts a very gradual long-term decline that began at the turn of the 20th century (and possibly earlier). The authors’ view is that the 1960s were a religious tipping point that happened over a longer period of time (the long 1960s), but that a cultural revolution occurred at that time, a revolution whose underlying causes of modernization had much greater longevity. While modernization had occurred all through the 19th and 20th centuries , the 1960s were a time when an older cultural regime that no longer fitted society was...

Brazil’s Evangelical Caucus

Brazil’s Evangelical Caucus   Reference library

Pedro A. G. dos Santos and Linsey Moddelmog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,203 words

... (1989). Evangelicalism in modern Britain: A history from the 1730s to the 1980s . London, UK: Routledge. Boas, T. C. (2014). Pastor Paulo vs. Doctor Carlos: Professional titles as voting heuristics in Brazil . Journal of Politics in Latin America , 6 (2), 39–72. Boas, T. X. , & Smith, A. E. (2015). Religion and the Latin American voter. In R. E. Carlin , M. M. Singer , & E. J. Zechmeister (Eds.), The Latin American voter: Pursuing representation and accountability in challenging contexts (pp. 99–121). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ...

Religious Traditions in Politics: Protestantism

Religious Traditions in Politics: Protestantism   Reference library

Evert van Leeuwen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
11,973 words

...threat to both the rising capitalistic system of economy and the papal authority. Money could not take the place of God in Luther’s view, even if it could make one pope or emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Luther also opposed the decision of Lateran Council V, confirmed by Pope Leo X in 1515 , to permit the Mounts of Piety ( Monte di Pièta ) to charge reasonable interest on loans. Luther kept himself conservatively to the old practice of established economic values, including the ban on interest. In the same vein he rejected Jewish banking, which had become a...

Genocide and Religion in Times of War

Genocide and Religion in Times of War   Reference library

Manus I. Midlarsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,975 words

...in 1630 but fell to Tilly’s forces the following year ( Cunningham & Grell, 2000 , p. 175). The city was sacked and most (approximately 20,000) of its 30,000 people massacred ( Medick, 2001 , p. 41). An eyewitness described small children being driven into a fire “like sheep, sticking them with spears” (quoted in Medick, 2001 , p. 30). For the first time in a war that in the end would lead to a 20% reduction in the German population, a major city had been plundered and destroyed. This event assumed apocalyptical proportions, even compared by...

Protest and Religion: Christianity in the People’s Republic of China

Protest and Religion: Christianity in the People’s Republic of China   Reference library

Yu Tao

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,919 words

... Leung, B. (2005). China’s religious freedom policy: The art of managing religious activity . China Quarterly , 184 , 894–913. Liu, J. , & White, C. (2018). Old pastor and local bureaucrats: Recasting church–state relations in contemporary China . Modern China . Lü, X. (2000). Booty socialism, bureau-preneurs, and the state in transition: Organizational corruption in China. Comparative Politics , 32 (3), 273–294. Lum, T. (2006). Social unrest in China . Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Madsen, R. (1998). China’s Catholics:...

On the Paradox of State Religion and Religious Freedom

On the Paradox of State Religion and Religious Freedom   Reference library

Zachary Elkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,368 words
Illustration(s):
7

...separately, for Latin America the proportion of those constitutions with state religion and those with religious freedom. Latin America is an analytically useful subgroup because its population of states is fairly stable across the last 200 years. Figure 2 shows a striking X-like pattern: evidently, in Latin America at least, state religion and religious freedom have trended in two very different directions. The graph shows that throughout most of the 19th century , most Latin American countries provided for a state religion, but not religious freedom....

Religious Regulation in China

Religious Regulation in China   Reference library

Lawrence C. Reardon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
9,485 words

...and Eurasia Forum Quarterly , 4 (4), 139–159. Froese, P. (2001). Hungary for religion: A supply-side interpretation of the Hungarian religious revival. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion , 40 (2), 251–268. Fu, X. (2003a). Religious freedom and rule of the law. Chinese Law and Government , 36 (2), 3–104. Fu, X. (2003b). Religious freedom and rule of the law. China Law and Government , 36 (3), 3–98. Godement, F. , & Kratz, A. (2015). One belt, one road: China’s great leap outward . London, UK: European Council on Foreign Relations....

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics

Experimentation in the Study of Religion and Politics   Reference library

Paul A. Djupe and Amy Erica Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,394 words
Illustration(s):
1

...; Campbell, Green, & Monson, 2012 ); Joe Lieberman’s historic vice presidential nomination led Kane, Craig, and Wald ( 2004 ) to investigate discrimination against Jewish candidates. List experimental studies have asked, would voters discriminate against “Religious Outgroup X” if they thought no one was watching (as is the case in the privacy of the polling booth)? Respondents are randomly assigned to receive one of two lists of items and asked to report the number of items with which they agree. For instance, interviewers in Kane et al.’s ( 2004 ) ...

Religious Traditions in Politics: Catholicism

Religious Traditions in Politics: Catholicism   Reference library

Lawrence C. Reardon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
11,374 words

...Yet Martin Luther’s publication of his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517 and the Northern European Protestant reformers were a far greater threat to the European Catholic State-Church religious and political monopoly. Martin Luther was in part motivated to act because Pope Leo X financed the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome by offering indulgences to almsgivers who hoped to have their sins absolved and their place in heaven guaranteed. Northern Europeans embraced Martin Luther’s protests and carried out local actions against the Catholic Church....

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