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Rock Art – Australian Aboriginal

Rock Art – Australian Aboriginal   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,311 words

...shelters of sub-tropical Arnhem Land hold an abundance of varied and skillfully executed examples of rock art. The two most general pictograph styles in Arnhem Land are the X-ray and Dynamic (sometimes called Mimi) paintings. Both tend to be basically naturalistic, yet their differences in form and subject matter are striking. The Dynamic style is generally simpler in design than the X-ray art, yet its elegance is remarkable. The anthropomorphs depicted in the Dynamic art are Mimi spirit people, the beings responsible for teaching the Aborigines to paint....

Jung, Carl – A Perspective

Jung, Carl – A Perspective   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,743 words

...within it have supported many ecological visions stressing a “one-world” framework. William G. Doty Further Reading Casey, Caroline . Making the Gods Work for You . New York: Three Rivers Press, 1998. Charet, F. X. “ Understanding Jung: Recent Biographies and Scholarship. ” Journal of Analytical Psychology 45 (2000), 195–219. Charet, F. X. Spiritualism and the Foundations of C.G. Jung's Psychology . Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. Ellenberger, Henri F. The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic...

Judaism

Judaism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
10,734 words

...of astrology and viewed it as a challenge to the Jewish understanding of human freedom. In the thirteenth century, however, other Jewish scholars were more forthcoming in accepting astrology and participated in its study along with the study of astronomy in the court of Alphonso X, “the Wise” ( 1252–1284 ). They were largely responsible for the construction of the Alphonsine Tables for computing planetary positions that remained popular until the mid-seventeenth century. As for the science of astrology, most Jewish philosophers-scientists in the thirteenth...

Christian Hospital, Taxila

Christian Hospital, Taxila   Reference library

Margaret Anderson Stock

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...the doctors in Taxila. The hospital makes every effort to provide quality medical treatment at low cost so that the poor, especially the tribal people from the hills, can afford to get the help they need. Taxila Christian Hospital also offers training programmes for nurse aides, X-ray technicians, laboratory technicians, and refractionists. It continues to provide outstanding medical service to many, especially the poor. margaret anderson stock Directory of Christian Hospitals Association of Pakistan (1984). Directory of Christian Medical Institutions in...

Menezes, Alexis de

Menezes, Alexis de (25 January 1559)   Reference library

Francis Marottickaparambil

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...was nominated as Viceroy of Portugal under Philip III of Spain, a post that he held for two years, and was then made President of the Council of State of Portugal at Madrid. francis marottickaparambil D'sa, M. (1910), History of the Catholic Church in India , Vol. I, Bombay: B.X. Furtado & Sons. John, K.J. (1999), The Road to Diamper , Cochin: Kerala Latin Catholic History Association. Raulin, F. (1745), Historia Ecclesiae Malabaricae cum Diamperitana Synodo , Rome: Hieronymus...

Wilcox, Katie

Wilcox, Katie (26 July 1889)   Reference library

Nirmala Jeyaraj

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...and equip women for more responsible participation in life. Once the residential school was established, her plan for a college for girls took centrestage. The parents in the neighbourhood encouraged her in this endeavour. She enlisted the support of eminent people like Rev. J.X. Miller and his wife, Sir James and Lady Helen Doak (her colleague in Capron Hall), the leading industrialists of Madurai, Raymond A. Dudley of the United Church Board for World Ministries, and friends of Sir James Doak in the Harvey Mills. The college was started in 1948 ...

Hijrah

Hijrah   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,337 words

.... Islam, Multiculturalism and Transnationalism . London: I.B. Tauris, 1998. Kepel, Gilles . The Prophet and Pharaoh . London, 1985. Detailed study of Muslim extremism in Egypt. Khan, Zafarul-Islam . Hijrah in Islam . London: The Muslim Institute, 1997. Malcolm X. The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965) . New York, 1992. Narrative of an African American 's journey to Africa through Islam. Martin, B. G. Muslim Brotherhoods in Nineteenth-Century Africa . Cambridge. 1976. Classic study of the confrontation between the African Ṣūfī brotherhoods and colonialism....

Social Justice, Anti-Poverty Work, and Religion

Social Justice, Anti-Poverty Work, and Religion   Reference library

Lara Rusch, R. Khari Brown, Ronald E. Brown, and Francine Banner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,930 words
Illustration(s):
3

...soup kitchen, clothing, and homeless programs engaging in community organizing relative to those that provide such programs. That being said, the estimates for Figure 1 are based upon the following formula: P r ( y = 1 | X ¯ , m a x , x k )   −   P r ( y = 1 | X ¯ , m i n , x k ) in which Y represents community organizing and X represents soup kitchen, clothing, and homeless programs. 18. The probability estimates listed in Figures 2 and 3 are derived from logit regression analyses in which the community organizing, clothing, homeless, and food...

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States

Religion and Political Conflict: “No Religious Affiliation” in the United States   Reference library

Kristi Winters

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,166 words

...“God bless the United States of America,” being a person of faith—especially of Protestant Christian faith—was almost synonymous with being a patriot. The 21st century is proving to be very different from the 20th in that regard, however. After years of exceptionally high levels of religious adherence and identity, the latter part of the 20th century saw the start of a trend: increasing numbers of Americans reported they had no religious affiliation when asked by pollsters. Those without a religious identification are now the second largest so-called...

Religious Regulation in France

Religious Regulation in France   Reference library

Paul Christopher Manuel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
12,236 words

...from the Vatican. Pope Pius X penned four encyclicals to the French from 1906 to 1910 , including Vehementer Nos (On the French law of separation), Gravissimo Officii Munere (On French associations of worship), Une Fois Encore (On the separation of church and state), and Notre Charge Apostolique (Our apostolic charge). These encyclicals condemned what the pope understood to be the illegal and unilateral abrogation of the Concordat of 1801 and the antireligious and hostile tone of these legislative measures ( Pius X, 2017 ). Many traditional...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...18, and 20 (especially vv. 18:3 , 6–8 , 14 , 22 ; 20:13 ) and Deuteronomy 23:10–15 , 18–19 ; from ancient Near Eastern law: Hittite Law [HL] §§ 189–190 (ca. 1650–1180 b.c.e. ) and Middle Assyrian Laws [MAL] A 19–20 (ca. 1076 b.c.e. ). From biblical poetry, key texts include the “sex-positive” Song of Songs. Homoeroticism in the Biblical World. The Hebrew Bible gives little attention to homoeroticism. Possible texts include the story of Sodom in Genesis 19 , alleged prohibitions of homosexual relations at Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13 ,...

Religious Regulation in Ireland

Religious Regulation in Ireland   Reference library

Vesna Malešević

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
14,423 words

... 2005 ). It was not until 1992 that the restriction on information was found unconstitutional ( Lentin, 2013 ). New amendments were added making it possible to get information on termination of pregnancy and travel to other jurisdictions for the procedure. The controversial “X case” in the same year created a new precedent as a young woman of 14 was prevented from traveling to terminate pregnancy as a result of rape. The Supreme Court overturned the decision allowing the woman to travel if there was a serious threat to her life. The Regulation of...

Games and Sports

Games and Sports   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,622 words
Illustration(s):
2

...August 6, 2004. http.//www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2004/08/4378bd27-94bd-436b-bef7-05adf4aa9d28.html . Nambiar, Shanthy , and Shamim Adam . “Muslim Swimwear Eases Australian divide, Makes Waves in Market.” http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20670001&refer&=home&sid=aVptIJY9X7yQ . “Piscataway: First Islamic Games will be held.” http://www.icna.org/icna-press-clippings/let-the-islamic-games-begin.html . Qaraḍāwī, Yūsuf al- . Islamic Education and Hassan al Banna . Translated by Shakil Ahmed . Beirut, 1984. Rahman, Afzalur . Role of Muslim Women in...

Religious Regulation in Brazil

Religious Regulation in Brazil   Reference library

Claudia Cerqueira and Guadalupe Tuñón

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
7,906 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the bill first, the executive branch proposed the bill that was finally passed. 19. Moraes suspends law of Rondônia that prevented to charge ICMS of churches and temples 20. See for example, “Ensino religioso é obrigatório em 49% de escolas públicas, contra lei” ( http://oglobo.globo.com/ ). 21. The complete presentation can be found online at ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x6VzAAtXN9c ). 22. Afro-Brazilian religions in general have faced a wave of attacks due to religious intolerance: their houses of worship, referred to as “terreiros,” have been...

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research

Secularization, Secularity, and Secularism in the New Millennium: Macro-theories and Research   Reference library

Jörg Stolz and Pascal Tanner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,268 words

...decline, a theory that depicts a very gradual long-term decline that began at the turn of the 20th century (and possibly earlier). The authors’ view is that the 1960s were a religious tipping point that happened over a longer period of time (the long 1960s), but that a cultural revolution occurred at that time, a revolution whose underlying causes of modernization had much greater longevity. While modernization had occurred all through the 19th and 20th centuries , the 1960s were a time when an older cultural regime that no longer fitted society was...

Brazil’s Evangelical Caucus

Brazil’s Evangelical Caucus   Reference library

Pedro A. G. dos Santos and Linsey Moddelmog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
8,203 words

... (1989). Evangelicalism in modern Britain: A history from the 1730s to the 1980s . London, UK: Routledge. Boas, T. C. (2014). Pastor Paulo vs. Doctor Carlos: Professional titles as voting heuristics in Brazil . Journal of Politics in Latin America , 6 (2), 39–72. Boas, T. X. , & Smith, A. E. (2015). Religion and the Latin American voter. In R. E. Carlin , M. M. Singer , & E. J. Zechmeister (Eds.), The Latin American voter: Pursuing representation and accountability in challenging contexts (pp. 99–121). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ...

Religious Traditions in Politics: Protestantism

Religious Traditions in Politics: Protestantism   Reference library

Evert van Leeuwen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
11,973 words

...threat to both the rising capitalistic system of economy and the papal authority. Money could not take the place of God in Luther’s view, even if it could make one pope or emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Luther also opposed the decision of Lateran Council V, confirmed by Pope Leo X in 1515 , to permit the Mounts of Piety ( Monte di Pièta ) to charge reasonable interest on loans. Luther kept himself conservatively to the old practice of established economic values, including the ban on interest. In the same vein he rejected Jewish banking, which had become a...

Religious Participation

Religious Participation   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Jo-Ann Scurlock, Susan Ackerman, Lynn Lidonnici, Darja Šterbenc Erker, Alicia D. Myers, Ross S. Kraemer, and Lily Vuong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,647 words

...5073: Munnia, priestess of Ceres from Athina; CIL 9, 3089: Helvia Quarta a priestess of Ceres and Venus; Hemelrijk, 2009 , p. 261). Inscriptions honor the public priestesses of Venus (Mamia from Pompei: CIL X 998; CIL X 816), Ceres (Pompei: CIL X 1074b; CIL X 812, CIL 1036), or public priestesses of Venus and Ceres (Surrentum: CIL X 688). In Greek colonies on Sicily, in Southern Italy, and in North Africa, the cult of Demeter/Ceres was important because the grain goddess Demeter was supposed to enable Greek colonizers to appropriate foreign...

Religious Leaders

Religious Leaders   Reference library

Ilan Peled, Jonathan Stökl, Vanessa L. Lovelace, Ioanna Patera, David M. Reis, J. Brian Tucker, Tal Ilan, Outi Lehtipuu, Bronwen Neil, and Damien Casey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
31,240 words

...usually through visions and dreams ( Num 12:6 ) and spirit possession ( Num 11:16–17 , 25 ). Only three figures are designated prophets: Abraham ( Gen 20:7 ), Aaron ( Exod 7:1 ), and Miriam ( Exod 15:20 ). However, the text implies that other figures who received divine revelation through dreams and visions were prophetic figures, such as Jacob ( Gen 28:11–12 , 17–18 ; 31:4–16 ), Joseph ( Gen 38:20–24 ), and Moses ( Exod 3:4b ). The book of Deuteronomy presents Moses as the founder of the office of prophet in ancient Israel and the prophet par...

Genocide and Religion in Times of War

Genocide and Religion in Times of War   Reference library

Manus I. Midlarsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Religion
Length:
10,975 words

...in 1630 but fell to Tilly’s forces the following year ( Cunningham & Grell, 2000 , p. 175). The city was sacked and most (approximately 20,000) of its 30,000 people massacred ( Medick, 2001 , p. 41). An eyewitness described small children being driven into a fire “like sheep, sticking them with spears” (quoted in Medick, 2001 , p. 30). For the first time in a war that in the end would lead to a 20% reduction in the German population, a major city had been plundered and destroyed. This event assumed apocalyptical proportions, even compared by...

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