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46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of the literary market. This broadening of the marketplace coincided with a trend across the region toward the professionalization of publishing, which became a separate business from printing and bookselling. 4 The development of the publishing industries in the 20 th century By the early 20 th century, the growing Latin American book market was still dominated by French publishing houses—Garnier, Bouret, Ollendorff, Armand Colin, Hachette, Michaud, and Editorial Franco-Iberoamericana—plus some German (Herder), English ( *Nelson ) and American (Appleton)...

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,966 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...such authors as Hayyim Nahman Bialik ( 1873–1934 ) and Saul Tchernichovski ( 1875–1943 ). The emigration of these authors and many of their colleagues to Palestine in the first decades of the 20 th century signalled the emergence of Palestine as the centre of Hebrew literature. This shift to Palestine was further strengthened by the major political events of the 20 th century, the rise of Communism in Eastern Europe, the mass destruction of European Jews by the Nazis, and the foundation of the State of Israel in 1948 . Modern Israeli authors such as ...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...( Flos Sanctorum ) in Tamil followed in 1580 and 1586 respectively. All these books were prepared in accordance with instructions issued in 1575 by Alessandro Valignano , who was responsible for all Jesuit missions in Southeast and East Asia between 1573 and 1606 (Wicki, x. 269, 334). He would also play a crucial role in the beginnings of missionary printing in China and Japan. The first publication in an Indian language other than Tamil was printed in Konkani some time before 1561 at the College of St Paul. In a letter from Goa on 1 December 1561...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... ( 1579 ) indicates that it was ‘Printed by Hugh Singleton , dwelling in Creede Lane neere vnto Ludgate at the signe of the gylden Tunne, and are there to be solde.’ Increasingly, however, title-pages came to bear a standard formula, which indicated that a book was printed ‘By X for Y.’ Thus, for example, when Thomas Middleton ’s Micro-cynicon appeared in 1599 , the title-page noted that it had been ‘Imprinted at London by Thomas Creede , for Thomas Bushell ’ and that it was ‘to be sold’ at Bushell’s ‘shop at the North Doore of Paules Church’. Here...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...for their cultural achievements in other areas. Runes are alphabetic, though without taking full advantage of that system (e.g. consonants do not double) ( see 1 ). They seem to be drawn from the Roman alphabet, adapted to a non-Latin language: five ‘unnecessary’ letters (K, Q, X, Y, and Z) are used for phonemes and language clusters that have no Latin equivalent, while one rune has no equal in the Roman alphabet. Runes began in the Romanized centres of northern Germany and spread from there, appearing on high-prestige artefacts to record the owner’s or...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...History , 11 (1980), 265–86 N. Harris , ‘ Sopravvivenze e scomparse delle testimonianze del Morgante di Luigi Pulci ’, Rinascimento , 45 (2005), 179–245 L. Hellinga , ‘The Codex in the Fifteenth Century: Manuscript and Print’, in A Potencie of Life , ed. N. Barker (1993) X. Hermand et al ., ‘Les Politiques éditoriales dans l’Europe des imprimeurs au XV e siècle: un projet de recherches, en cours’, Archives et bibliothèques de Belgique , 87 (2009), 75–82 R. Hirsch , Printing, Selling and Reading 1450–1550 , 2e (1974) ISTC K. Jensen , ‘Printing the...

Haultin, Pierre

Haultin, Pierre (c.1510×20–1587)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
67 words

...Pierre ( c .1510×20–1587 ) French printer and *punchcutter . He published Protestant Bibles and devotional works at Paris and La Rochelle, and cut *romans heavier, narrower, and with a larger *x-height than those established by *Garamont and others in the 1530s . His *italics and *Greeks follow *Granjon ’s and Garamont ’s. John A. Lane H. Vervliet , ‘ Printing Types of Pierre Haultin ’, Quaerendo , 30 (2000), 87–129,...

Autobiography of Malcolm X, The

Autobiography of Malcolm X, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
202 words

...of Malcolm X, The A classic of the mid-20 th century American Civil Rights era, The Autobiography of Malcolm X extended the black narrative tradition of radical self-invention in Frederick Douglass and Ralph Ellison. It also marked itself as part of a new media genre—the ‘as told to’ celebrity book. With a father killed by vigilantes and a mother plunged into insanity, Malcolm Little ( 1925–65 ) moves from life as a petty criminal and jailbird to celebrity in the Black Muslim movement and spokesperson for Black Power. The work ends with the...

type, size of

type, size of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
376 words

...millimetres per 20 lines (mm/20 ll.), measured from baseline to baseline in the printed image, but the trade used size names until measurement in *points replaced them, mostly in the 19 th century. The most common English body sizes (with approximate Anglo-American point sizes and 20-line measures) are: Pearl (5 pt, 34mm/20 ll.), Nonpareil (6 pt, 42mm/20 ll.), Brevier (8 pt, 54mm/20 ll.), Long Primer (10 pt, 67mm/20 ll.), Small Pica (11 pt, 73mm/20 ll.), *Pica (12 pt, 83mm/20 ll.), English (14 pt, 94mm/20 ll.), Great Primer (17 pt, 118mm/20 ll.), Double...

Chinese type

Chinese type   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
493 words

...the need to use metal type for modern high-speed presses that ensured its success, rather than any advantages of its own. By the 20 th century, Japan provided most of the newspaper type in China. Although a few Chinese foundries invested in the development of new typefaces before World War II, it was only in the 1960s that a wider variety of type was developed, before type itself gave way to *photocomposition . Martin J. Heijdra X. Zhang and Q. Han , Zhongguo huozi yinshua shi ...

freedom of the press

freedom of the press   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
303 words

...which views it as an essential component of freedom of speech. In France—where the absolute monarchy had attempted to exert control over the press since the founding of Théophraste Renaudot’s Gazette in 1631 —the 1830 Revolution started when Charles X took measures to suppress press freedom. In the 20 th century, *censorship and control of the press is the one thing all totalitarian regimes have had in common; even democratic regimes have yielded to the temptation to introduce censorship in times of war or in the name of the fight against terrorism. ...

footnote

footnote   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
504 words

...antiquity. They initially appeared in Netherlandish books from the first half of the 17 th century, printed beneath the *direction line , sometimes in columns, often in italics, in a *fount two sizes smaller than the text. They could be lengthy, as in Pliny’s Epistolarum Libri X (Leiden and Rotterdam, 1669 ), where they sometimes occupy more of the page than its text. Their presence was noted in the text by a superscript number, lower-case letter, or symbol, the latter in the order *, †, ‡, §, ||, ¶. This practice has persisted to the present day, except...

library destruction

library destruction   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
819 words

...As in many instances in history past and history future, the act of a moment suffices to obliterate centuries of accumulated knowledge. Neil Harris R. Darnton , ‘ Burn a Country’s Past and You Torch Its Future ’, Washington Post , 20 Apr. 2003 R. Knuth , Libricide (2003) — Burning Books and Levelling Libraries (2006) L. X. Polastron , Livres en feu (2004) J. Rose , The Holocaust and the Book ...

marine and underwater archaeology

marine and underwater archaeology   Quick reference

M. V. Angel

The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,194 words

...isotope techniques and dendrochronology—the use of tree rings, which yield a precise dating signature if the location where the original tree grew is known. Once in the air and light, deterioration is rapid unless immediate conservation action is taken. Metal objects are often X-rayed and treated by electrolysis, attaching them to anodes to reverse their degradation. Organic items, wood, fabric, and leather, need to be consolidated by infusing them with polyethylene glycol or freeze dried, a process that, in the case of the timbers of the Vasa and the ...

medical book

medical book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,437 words

...Some general medical journals continue to be the chosen site for the most significant discoveries: for instance the Lancet in the UK and the New England Journal of Medicine in the US. Peter Murray Jones A. Beccaria , I codici di medicina del periodo presalernitano, secoli IX, X, e XI (1956) A. Besson , ed., Thornton’s Medical Books, Libraries and Collectors , 3e (1990) W. Bynum and R. Porter , eds., Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine (2 vols, 1993) Catalogue of Printed Books in the Wellcome Historical Medical Library (5 vols,...

samizdat and tamizdat

samizdat and tamizdat   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
1,979 words

...Khrushchev in 1964 , samizdat was the kernel of the dissident movement and took on new forms such as Magizdat , or Magnitizdat —materials reproduced on tape. Slightly earlier, unpublishable songs by ‘bards’ were already being manufactured in quite large quantities by means of X-ray plates ( na kostiakh , ‘on bones’). From the mid-sixties until Gorbachev ’s policy of glasnost’ (openness, transparency) commenced in 1986 , thousands of samizdat documents were produced and circulated in most parts of the Soviet empire, especially in Russia, Ukraine,...

Inchon, landing at

Inchon, landing at (1950)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...had suffered an hour of doubt following an early misreport of failure, informed Washington that ‘the whole operation is proceeding on schedule’. By 20 September, 50,000 troops were ashore fighting for Seoul and meanwhile, preceded by an intense air and land bombardment, the UN and South Korean forces at Pusan shattered the NKPA and began to drive northwards. On 26 September, a divisional column joined elements of X Corps close to Seoul. By then, NKPA remnants were joining guerrilla bands in the south or filtering northwards across the 38th Parallel, incapable...

Rezonville/Gravelotte, battles of

Rezonville/Gravelotte, battles of (1870)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Rezonville. Le Boeuf's III Corps was at Verneville and the Guard at Gravelotte, while Ladmirault's IV Corps marched up from Metz. Bazaine's sloth confused Moltke ‘the Elder’, the German COS. The right wing of Second Army—Rheinbaben's cavalry at Puxieux, Voigts-Rhetz's X Corps at Thiaucourt, and Alvensleben's III Corps, marching up from Gorze—had no idea that it faced the main French force. Rheinbaben shelled Forton out of Mars la Tour at about 09.00, but when Alvensleben arrived he realized what he was dealing with. Recognizing that only...

Philippines, Liberation of the

Philippines, Liberation of the (1944–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...invasion, and on 3 October they acknowledged that an attack on Luzon would follow. Shielded by Adm. William F. Halsey 's Third Fleet and Vice Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid 's Seventh, Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger 's Sixth Army (X and XXIV Corps) of MacArthur's Southwest Pacific Area command streamed ashore against light opposition on 20 October . MacArthur and his aides waded ashore, fulfilling his 1942 pledge, “I shall return.” Convinced that the naval Battle of Leyte Gulf (24– 25 October ) had seriously weakened the Americans, the local Japanese Army...

Religious Services, Byzantine

Religious Services, Byzantine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

.... Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984. Nikephoros II Phokas . Praecepta militaria . Translated with commentary in E. McGeer , Sowing the Dragon's Teeth: Byzantine Warfare in the Tenth Century . Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1995. Pertusi, A . “ Una acolouthia militare inedita del X secolo. ” Aevum 22 (1948): 145–168. Secondary Works Dennis, G. T . “Religious Services in the Byzantine Army.” In Eulogema: Studies in Honor of Robert Taft, SJ , pp. 107–117. Studia Anselmiana 110. Rome: Centro Studi S. Anselmo, 1993. Viellefond, J . “ Les pratiques religieuses...

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