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Khwārizmī, al-

Khwārizmī, al-   Reference library

Jeffrey A. Oaks

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
4,714 words

...( x 2 + 10 x = 39 ). As Jens Høyrup ( 1986 ) has noted, the first proof does not follow the procedure and closely resembles the Babylonian solution to the “four sides and the area” problem. After the proofs al-Khwārizmī multiplies sample binomials. He then explains how to add and subtract expressions with diminished terms (i.e., apotomes, both numerical and algebraic). The examples are: add 200 − 10 to 20 − 200 ; subtract 200 − 10 from 20 − 200 ; add 100 + x 2 − 20 x to 50 + 10 x − 2 x 2 ; subtract 50 + 10 x − 2 x 2 from 100 + x 2 − 20 x ....

Murādī, al-

Murādī, al-   Reference library

Julio Samsó

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
598 words

...al-Murādī, author of an important treatise on mechanical devices entitled Kitāb al-asrār fī natāʾij al-afkār (The Book of Secrets on the Results of Thoughts). The work is extant in manuscript Florence Medicea-Laurenziana Or. 152, copied in Toledo in 1266 in the court of Alfonso X (r. 1252–1284 ), and once attributed incorrectly to Ibn Muʿādh al-Jayyānī. Nothing is known about al-Murādī’s life, his origins, or even when he lived. Four machines described in the book refer explicitly to the length of the day, at the summer solstice, as fifteen equinoctial...

Ṣūfī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al-

Ṣūfī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, al- (903–986)   Reference library

R. H. van Gent

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
881 words

...referred to as “Ṣūfī’ Latinus”) only contain the star catalog (in some later copies with longitudes updated to the epoch 1428) and pictures of the constellations but omitting his commentary. A Castilian version was incorporated in the Libros del saber de astrología of Alfonso X of Castile (r. 1252–1284 ). Material from al-Ṣūfī’s atlas, apparently from an original Arabic version, was used by Petrus Apianus ( 1501–1552 ) in his star charts. His stellar nomenclature was also adopted on the 13.5-inch (34-cm) celestial globe published after the mid-1640s in...

Mechanics and Engineering

Mechanics and Engineering   Reference library

Josep Casulleras

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,384 words

... Book of Secrets is one of the very few Arabic texts known to have been copied at the Toledan court of Alfonso X of Castile (r. 1252–1284 ), an indication of the king’s interest in this kind of engineering. Al-Murādī states that the purpose of his book is to recover a science that was falling into disuse; in it, he presents thirty-one models. Numbers 1–5 are very large clocklike machines with moving automata but without precise timing. Models 6–20 and 27–30 are clocks that record the passage of seasonal hours, also with moving automata. Models 21–24 are...

Observatories

Observatories   Reference library

Yavuz Unat and Salim Ayduz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
3,408 words

...World . Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1998. King, David A. In Synchrony with the Heavens: Studies in Astronomical Timekeeping and Instrumentation in Medieval Islamic Civilization . Vol. 1, The Call of the Muezzin (Studies I–IX); Vol. 2, Instruments of Mass Calculation (Studies X–XVIII). Leiden, Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, 2004–2005. King, David A. Islamic Mathematical Astronomy . London: Variorum Reprints, 1986. King, David A. World-Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance to Mecca: Innovation and Tradition in Islamic Science . Leiden, Netherlands...

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