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Laws of Ur-Namma

Laws of Ur-Namma   Reference library

Claus Wilcke

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
3,882 words

... iii’ 9’–12’ correspond to the now lost last one or two lines of X ix and X x [1–3]. X x 4–5 and X x 8 are not found in S 2 . S 2 iii’ 13’; 15’ are absent from X (or they stood in the lacuna after X x 12). X x 6 = S 2 iii’ 16’. X x 7 = S 2 iii’ 14’. For X x 8 compare S 2 iii’ 20’. X x 9 = S 2 iii’ 18’. X x 10 = S 2 iii’ 17’. X x 11–12 = S 2 iii’ 19’–20’. X x [13–14] = S 2 iii’ 21’–22’ (+ traces of three lines after a lacuna of 5–6 lines), then a lacuna of four long lines in X, then X x 20–25 (blessings). Different originals and redactions. Short lines in...

Legal Rhetoric

Legal Rhetoric   Reference library

Dale Patrick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
8,050 words

...Commandments. Within the commandments in Exodus 20:1–17 , Exodus 20:5–6 , 7b , 10b , 11 , and 12b are paranesis or motive clauses. Exodus 20:5–6 follows the prohibitions against recognizing any god but Yhwh and against making images. Exodus 20:5 prohibits worshipping (bowing down to) images, which can be taken to supplement the prohibition of making images. The plural object has no antecedent in Exodus 20:4 , but seems to refer to the “gods” in Exodus 20:3 . The upshot is that Exodus 20:5a combines the two commandments (as Jews, Roman...

Punishment and Restitution

Punishment and Restitution   Reference library

Trevor W. Thompson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
8,280 words

...; Lev 19:26 , 31 ; 20:6 , 27 ; cf. LNB §7; MAL A §47); (2) sacrificing to other gods ( Exod 22:20 ); (3) working or making fire on the sabbath ( Exod 31:12–17 ; 35:2–3 ; cf. Exod 20:8–11 ; Num 15:32–36 ; Deut 5:14 ; cf. Jer 17:19–27 ; Neh 13:15–22 ); (4) sacrificing one’s children to Molech ( Lev 20:1–5 ; giving a child to a ruler in the Septuagint); (5) acting as a necromancer ( Lev 20:27 ; practicing gastromancy and enchantment in the Septuagint); (6) blasphemy ( Lev 24:10–16 , 23 ; cf. Exod 22:28 ; cf. Exod 20:3–5 ); (7) entering the...

Sexual Legislation

Sexual Legislation   Reference library

Carolyn Pressler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
9,072 words

...It is a “great sin” ( Gen 20:9 , cf. 39:9 ; for Ugarit and Egypt, see Moran, 1959 , pp. 280–281; Rabinowitz, 1959 , p. 73). Moreover, adultery is the only sexual offense included in Decalogue ( Exod 20:14 ; Deut 5:18 ). Casuistic laws consistently treat adultery as a capital offense. The deep concern with which biblical authors viewed adultery is reflected in all three parts of the Hebrew canon (Torah, Prophets, and Writings) and in a wide range of genres, including proverbs (e.g., Prov 3:16 ; 5:3 , 20 ; 7:5 , 20 ; 22:14 ), prophecy (e.g., ...

Commandments

Commandments   Reference library

Aryeh Cohen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
5,353 words

...like this , then you shall sanctify the month ( Mekhilta , Pisha 1; b. Roš Haš. 20a). The continuation of Exodus 12 , from verse 3 on, is a commandment to get, isolate, keep, slaughter, brush the blood on the doorposts, roast, and eat the Paschal sacrifice on unleavened bread and bitter herbs. However, this commandment is only for the Israelites in Egypt as they are waiting for redemption ( vv. 11–12 ). It is only in the interjected P (Priestly) verses 14–20 that the ritual is then commanded “throughout your generations … as a perpetual...

Debts, Loans, and Surety

Debts, Loans, and Surety   Reference library

Robin J. DeWitt Knauth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
7,801 words

...with repayment expected at harvest, often “on the threshing floor” (as specified in Laws of Eshnunna [LE] §19) along with an extra one-third portion for interest (33.3 percent; as compared to one-fifth or 20 percent for silver) according to Hammurapi’s standard rate, though in some periods interest could reach as high as 50 percent (see the Laws of X §§m–n; LE §§18a–21; and Laws of Hammurapi [LH] §§88–90/gap t–z; among others, in Roth, 1997 ; plus the Early Bronze Age ana ittišu school text from Nippur). In the case of severe drought and crop failure,...

Methods in Studying Ancient Law

Methods in Studying Ancient Law   Reference library

David P. Wright and Clare K. Rothschild

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
10,419 words

...way or another on sources. Besides using and building on the Covenant Code (in Deut 12 , 15–19 , and scattered across 20–25 ), Deuteronomy used a proto-Priestly dietary law source ( Deut 14:3–20 ; v. 21 is built from two separate dietary laws from the Covenant Code, Exod 22:30 ; 23:19b ), Assyrian treaty ( Deut 13 , 17 , 28 ; treaty presumably influenced the structure of Deuteronomy as a whole), Assyrian war customs ( Deut 20 ), and presumably a casuistic source on family, women, and sexual behavior interspersed in Deuteronomy 21–25 that was...

Suicide

Suicide   Reference library

Justin R. Howell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
6,994 words

... 1.13.14; 1.39.53). He furthermore claims that suicide violates the Sixth Commandment of the Decalogue, “You shall not kill” ( Exod 20:13 ). Although he acknowledges that this commandment occurs within the context of certain acts one must avoid committing against a neighbor, he reasons that the absence of the phrase “your neighbor” in this particular prohibition implies the unlawfulness of killing oneself as well ( Civ. 1.20.1–6; cf. Ep. 204). In subsequent centuries multiple ecclesiastical councils denied certain rites to persons who had killed themselves...

Historical Records

Historical Records   Reference library

Job Y. Jindo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
6,604 words

... 1:7–8 ), “king’s practices” ( 1 Sam 8:11–18 ), pledges of agreement and allegiance ( Josh 24:1–28 ), political covenants and treaties ( 1 Kgs 20:34 ), treason ( Jer 32:1–5 ; 37:12–16 ; 38:4 ), the casting of lots for the dividing of land and offices ( Neh 11:1 ; 1 Chr 6:39 , 46–50 [Eng. 6:54 , 61–65 ]; 25:8 ; 26:13–16 ), the law of spoil ( 1 Sam 30:24–25 ), theft of sacred property ( Josh 7:20–26 ), releasing of debt slaves ( Jer 34 ), loss of borrowed tools ( 2 Kgs 6:1–7 ), debts and slavery ( 2 Kgs 4:1 ; Neh 5:1–13 ), runaway slaves...

Talmud

Talmud   Reference library

Zvi Septimus

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
9,515 words

...play a role in the legal process. First, the Talmud often quotes Baraitot from Midrash Halakha. In these instances biblical exegesis is central to the legal discussion (e.g., B. Qam. 83b). Second, the Talmud quotes Baraitot beginning with the words tānāʾ dĕ-bêt- X (It was taught in the house of X). In some of these instances a halakhic midrash not found in our Midrash Halakha collections is reported (e.g., Ketub . 35a). Third, the Talmud quotes a Tosefta in which the Bible is used to justify a law (e.g., Yebam . 37b). The Talmud can be viewed as an...

Calendar and Festivals

Calendar and Festivals   Reference library

Jonathan Ben-Dov

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
4,624 words

...reflects disagreement with regard to the beginning of the day, with a tendency in priestly legislation to begin the day at sunrise. In the Book of Jubilees, the sacrifice law ( 21:10 ) endorses the beginning of the day at sunset, and the same is implied in the sabbath law of CD X:14–17. It seems that Pharisaic positions maintained the biblical stipulation of sunrise as the concluding point in sacrificial law, and the issue was still debated in Second Temple times (see MMT: 4Q394 I 12–16). The Beginning of the Year. More than any other calendrical issue, the...

Modern Legal Traditions

Modern Legal Traditions   Reference library

M. Christian Green, Benny Tai, Norman Doe, Rafael D. García Pérez, and Robert F. Cochran Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
24,000 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of European legal culture, this meant that the legal order of Castile was extended to the Americas. This included its civil and canon ius commune (common law), and the Castilian ius proprium (proper law), represented chiefly by the Siete Partidas (Seven-part Code) of Alfonso X of Castile (thirteenth century). In America a pluralistic legal culture thus came into being, produced by the confluence of the ius commune and the law of Castile with the indigenous legal traditions ( Barrientos, 2000 , pp. 53–137). In this sense, for these three centuries the...

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