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DICTUM

DICTUM (LATIN)   Reference library

Alain de Libera and Irène Rosier-Catach

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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... PARONYM ): (a) formal denomination in which what gives the name is in what is named “as in a subject”—this is the case with the whiteness that denominates x in “ x is white,” and (b) causal denomination, in which what gives the name is in the agent or efficient cause, not in the patient—this is the case with the thought or intellection that the thinking mind has of it in “ x is [a] thought” or “ x is thought.” The thought is “as in a subject” with respect to the thinking mind, not what is thought. This second type of denomination is what Gregory calls...

PREDICATION

PREDICATION   Reference library

Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...without saying so explicitly, the first characteristic of intracategorial predication: attribution ( sunônumos [ συνωνύμως ‎]). What R1 means in fact is that in the case in which two entitites x and y belong to the same category and y is predicated of x , the definition of y and “ y ” (that is, the term designating y ) are both predicated of x . The problem for the translator and reader of 2a19–21 is that Aristotle does not make it clear that R1 holds for the entities belonging to the same category. Nonetheless, what R1 defines, namely what...

COMPARISON

COMPARISON   Reference library

Francis Goyet

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...Quintilian ( Institutio oratoria , 8.6.8). Quintilian takes from Aristotle the excessively famous example of “Achilles is like a lion,” as opposed to “Achilles is a lion” (Aristotle, Rhetoric , 3.4.1406b20–24; Quintilian, Institutio oratoria , 8.6.9). Aristotle distinguishes between eikôn [ εἰϰών ‎] and metaphora [ μεταφορά ‎] ( Rhetoric , 3.4.1406b20–23), and Quintilian between similitudo and tra[ns]latio , the latter word being itself the Latin equivalent of the Greek metaphora , which Quintilian also uses: Aristotle Quintilian eikôn = similitudo...

GEGENSTAND

GEGENSTAND (SPANISH)   Reference library

Dominique Pradelle

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...als den Gegenstand der sinnlichen Anschauung: aber dieses Etwas ist insofern nur das transzendentale Objekt. Dieses bedeutet aber ein Etwas = x, wovon wir gar nichts wissen. (Since appearances are nothing but representations, the understanding relates them to a something, as the object of sensible intuition; but this something is to that extent only the transcendental object. This signifies, however, a something = X, of which we know nothing at all.) (Kant, Kritik der reinen Vernunft , A 250) This object is defined elsewhere as “ die bloß intelligible...

ERSCHEINUNG

ERSCHEINUNG (GERMAN)   Reference library

Françoise Dastur

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...is appearance [ Erscheinung ]” (ibid. B 70, note). This object in itself, which is the nonperceptible cause of our representations and which remains entirely unknown to us, is what Kant called the transcendental “object” (B 522), and which he notes in the first edition is simply “=X” (A 109). This distinction between appearance and the thing in itself is nevertheless not simply a reiteration of the classical distinction between appearance and truth but on the contrary the logical consequence of the definition of Erscheinung as apparition . For, as Kant...

PRÉDICABLE

PRÉDICABLE   Reference library

Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...Y as of a subject is also predicated of that of which Y is predicated as of an individual subject X. The complete schema of the relation of predicability, corresponding to the vertical relations established on “Porphyry’s Tree,” is thus: (where Z designates a genus, Y a species, X an individual, and → the relation “to be predicated of…as of a subject”). This schema articulates entities that are ontologically subordinated to each other within the single genus (X is subordinated to Y, which is subordinated to Z). The same thesis is set forth in Isagoge 2.§14:...

TO TI ÊN EINAI

TO TI ÊN EINAI (GREEK)   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine and Albert Rijksbaron

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...already attempted to do, by emphasizing that the “good” answer to the question about the essence of x is one that designates auto ho esti , that which is proper to and of itself ( kath’ hauto ). One can also say, and in a more rigorously Aristotelian manner, that a good answer to the question “What is it?” once narrowed and reformulated as ti ên einai is one that puts forward a well-articulated definition that can narrow down as much as possible the x in question, instead of simply giving it a name, even a proper name: “ esti d’ horos men logos ho to...

GEFÜHL

GEFÜHL (GERMAN)   Reference library

Jean-Pierre Dubost

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...der thierischen Natur des Menschen mit seiner geistigen.” In Nationalausgabe , vol. 20. Weimar: Hermann Böhlaus Nachfolger, 1962. First published in 1780. Translation with an introduction by J. Weiss : “Connection between Animal and Spiritual Nature in Man.” In The Philosophical and Aesthetic Letters and Essays . London: Chapman, 1845. Schiller, Friedrich von . “Über die ästhetische Erziehung des Menschen in einer Reihe von Briefen.” In Nationalausgabe , vol. 20. Weimar: Hermann Böhlaus Nachfolger, 1962. First published in 1795. Translation by ...

BILD

BILD (SPANISH)   Reference library

Pascal David

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...1995. Schönborn (von), Christoph . L’Icône du Christ: fondements théologiques . Paris: Éditions du Cerf, 1986. First published in 1976. Schönborn (von), Christoph . God’s Human Face: The Christ-icon . Translated by L. Krauth . San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1994. Tilliette, X. Schelling . 2nd ed. Paris: Vrin, 1992. Wackernagel, Wolfgang . “Imagine denudari.” In Éthique de l’image et métaphysique de l’abstraction chez Maître Eckhart . Paris: Vrin, 1991. ...

PARONYM

PARONYM   Reference library

Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...understood independently of the diverse medieval interpretations of Metaphysics ᴢ 1, 1028a10–20 (the accident is not ens —an existent—but entis , something of an existent), representing the accident (according to Aristotle) as an “inflection of substance.” Ptôsis The noun ptôsis is not attested in Greek before Plato. A noun of action based on the radical of piptô [ πίπτω ‎], “to fall,” ptôsis means literally “a fall”: the fall of a die (Plato, Republic , X.604c), or of lightning (Aristotle, Meteorology , 339a3). Alongside this basic value (and...

THEMIS

THEMIS (GREEK)   Reference library

Pierre Judet de la Combe and Barbara Cassin

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...interpretation is to explain the development of archaic law in terms of the passage from orality to writing. According to this line of thought, there can be no law in the strict sense unless the rule can be identified as such, in its universal value and application (“whoever does x will be subject to y ”), and unless it is independent of the traditional contexts of its enunciation, which are always specific and particular. This would only become possible with the institution of writing (which appeared in Greece in its alphabetical form in the first quarter...

MOMENT

MOMENT   Reference library

Françoise Balibar, Philippe Büttgen, and Barbara Cassin

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...beam of the scales. Some translators who use momentum in order to designate the first meaning of rhopê have to then use another term (for example, pondus ) when they want to signify the second meaning. Yet this usage is far from being a general one, since Vitruvius, in Book X of De architectura ( 1486 ), describes momentum as the combined effect of the weight and of the distance traveled. What is more, momentum is also used in the Middle Ages to translate the Greek term to kinêma [ τὸ ϰίνημα ‎], which is found in Book VI of Aristotle’s Physics ...

BEGRIFF

BEGRIFF (SPANISH)   Reference library

Philippe Büttgen, Marc Crépon, and Sandra Laugier

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...logical, the subjective from the objective; never ask what a word means by itself, but always in context; and never lose sight of the distinction between concept and object (der Unterschied zwischen Begriff und Gegenstand ist im Auge zu behalten: Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik , x). The Begriff is not a psychological but a logical notion. The distinction between concept and object proceeds entirely from the new logic, according to which simple utterances are analyzed for their function and argument. For example, in the sentence “The Earth is a planet,” we...

SUBJECT

SUBJECT   Reference library

Étienne Balibar, Barbara Cassin, and Alain de Libera

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...initially relates this apperception to the idea of self-apprehension as subject . The first thing they have in common tends to be an Augustinian denial of the specularity of the self-to-self relationship: “The mind [does not] know itself as in a mirror” (Augustine, De Trinitate X, 3, 5 BA 16, p. 128). Many medieval philosophers conclude from this theorem that, despite the claims of Aristotle and the Peripatetics, the soul cannot know itself in the same way that it can know other things, namely through representation or abstraction, and that it does not know...

DASEIN

DASEIN (GERMAN)   Reference library

Pascal David

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...what Rousseau called, in the fifth of his Rêveries d’un promeneur solitaire , “the feeling of existence divested of any other affection,” seems to have been the rallying cry of a new sensibility that defined an era (Tieck, Moritz, Jean-Paul [Richter], Novalis. On this point, cf. X. Tilliette , L’intuition intellectuelle de Kant à Hegel ). III. Daseyn, Daseyen, Da-sein : Fichte and Hegel A frequently overlooked passage in Fichte’s Die Anweisung zum seligen Leben makes a great deal of the term Daseyn (using its old spelling): Inwiefern das göttliche...

PEOPLE

PEOPLE   Reference library

Marc Crépon, Barbara Cassin, and Claudia Moatti

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...formula populus plebsque (the populus and the plebs ). Later on, the plebs was gradually integrated into the populus , but the term plebs retained its exclusive meaning of a group outside the patrician families (Gaius, Institutiones , I.3; Aulus Gellius, Attic Nights , X.20, 5). Under the Republic, the word designated more generally all those who did not belong for tax purposes to the upper orders (senators and knights in Rome, decurions in the provinces). Thus plebs ended up designating “the popular masses,” “the common people,” and was sometimes...

WELT

WELT (SPANISH)   Reference library

Pascal David

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...). The Latin mundus , in the sense of the ensemble of celestial bodies, skies, universe of light, “seems to be the same word as mundus , ‘finery,’ which was chosen to designate the ‘world,’ no doubt in imitation of the Greek [ ϰόσμος ‎].” Thus, according to Amyot ( Vie de Dion , X: 2, in Plutarch, Vies parallèles , 1559), the universe that obeys and is governed by the divinity “ est de faict et de nom Monde, qui autrement ne serait que désordre immonde ”—is in both name and actuality World ( monde ), which otherwise would only be a filthy mess ( immonde...

SOUL

SOUL   Reference library

Étienne Balibar

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...desires, and intentions. Psychologists think that folk psychology functions, for example, by attributing beliefs—since ordinarily we say: “X believes that Y has the intention to …,” and so forth. However, one might ask in what way “X believes that” involves attributing a mental entity, namely a belief ( see BELIEF ), to Y. The passage—an elementary stage in the philosophy of mind—from our ordinary expressions (“X believes that”) to the claim of an attribution of beliefs to a mind is part of a clever strategy, as Vincent Descombes has shown in La denrée...

ESSENCE

ESSENCE   Reference library

Jean-François Courtine

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...“well-known distinction” onto the Aristotelian questions “ ti esti? ei esti? ” [ τί ἐστι ? εἰ ἐστι ? ‎]. In effect, it is one thing to know of something “ to ti esti ” [ τὸ τί ἐστι ‎], the “what it is,” or better, “ to ti ên einai ” [ τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι ‎], the “what it is to be for x ,” the “quiddity” ( see TO TI ÊN EINAI ), but it is something else to know that it is (“ hoti estin ” [ ὅτι ἔστιν ‎]), that it is the case ( daß ), the “quoddity”: ‘Αυάγϰη γὰϱ τὸ εἰδότα τὸ τί ἐστιν ἄνθϱωπος ἢ ἄλλο ὁτιοῦν, εἰδέναι ϰαὶ ὅτι ἔστι (τὸ γὰϱ μὴ ὂν οὐδεὶς οἶδεν ὅ τι ἐστίν,...

ESTI

ESTI   Reference library

Barbara Cassin

Dictionary of Untranslatables: A Philosophical Lexicon

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...deliberation, wish and regret, eventuality, or virtuality. Similarly, one may distinguish ouk on [ οὐϰ ὄν ‎] and mê on [ μὴ ὄν ‎], “not being,” distributing all the nuances that can come with a participle, whether more factual and causal ones ( ouk on [x], “insofar as, because, it is not [x]”) or more adversative, concessive, hypothetical ( mê on [y], “although, given that, even though, it is not [y]”). The contrast is maintained, of course, when the participle is nominalized. Thus, ho ouk on , hoi ouk ontes , in the masculine, is Thucydides’s way...

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