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Malcolm X

Malcolm X   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,505 words
Illustration(s):
1

...one closest to attaining true knowledge of God, the one to most effectively erase racism from society and promote peace, love, and justice. Malcolm X became dedicated to spreading the message that the American white person’s racism needed to be regarded as a human problem and that both races had the responsibility to correct it. During his speech in the Audubon Ballroom in New York on 20 December 1964 , Malcolm X spoke to his audience about Africa, Asia, and the Arab world. He also talked of oppression and exploitation. He further spoke of the nonalignment...

Clarke, John Henrik

Clarke, John Henrik   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...1950 s and the 1960 s, Clarke was a regular contributor to ideas around African American identity. He wrote about Paul Robeson and W. E. B. Du Bois , and also on Marcus Garvey , Martin Luther King Jr., Kwame Nkrumah (whom Clarke helped escort around the United States), Malcolm X, and Richard Wright . Many years later, when Clarke found himself stranded in Ghana, Nkrumah, by then president, gave him a research position with the Ghanaian government. Clarke was also a good friend of Mozambican independence hero Eduardo Mondlane—the founder of the Mozambique...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
15,331 words

...to ennobling constraints of justice with love. This philosophy and these figures would be strongly challenged by the proponents of Black Power, the “Young Turks” in the movement’s Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee who, inspired by the practices and writings of Malcolm X and Frantz Fanon, among others, pressed with greater urgency for “Freedom, now!” through more forceful direct action rather than by way of the slower approach of moral suasion guided by the philosophy of nonviolence. Moreover, many of the YoungTurks, males among them especially,...

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