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Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775–1854)   Reference library

Michael G. Vater

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,716 words

...makes aesthetics the region that unites theoretical and practical philosophy, not the passive experience of viewer, auditor, or reader, but the peculiar productive activity of the artist: “aesthetic intuition.” In Kant’s language, an intuition of x is both my representation of x and the production of the x represented. In producing the work of art, the “intuitive” creator performs a knowing-as-doing that is more fundamental than the nonproductive knowing and the noncognitive production that differentiate “knowing” and “doing” in other phenomenal...

Anti-Aesthetic

Anti-Aesthetic   Reference library

Monique Roelofs

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,779 words

...rejection of things aesthetic, the relation of the anti-aesthetic to the aesthetic is more complex than this reading suggests. The notion of the anti-aesthetic that can be discerned in Foster’s anthology posits a capacious framework, at once theoretical and practical ( 1983 , p. x). Accordingly, the sphere of the anti-aesthetic is able to harbor, for instance, feminist deconstructive art (advocated by Craig Owens); Foucauldian accounts of institutions of art, including visions of art-historical continuity effected by museum practices (as proposed by Douglas...

Ineffability

Ineffability   Reference library

Daniel Albright

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,962 words

...this catalogue Amergin speaks of himself as a “word of science”; and he is indeed a poet who has become language—the whole dictionary is nothing but a predicate of his ego. A poem like this is obviously a fragment of an infinitely long poem, since the rhetorical form (I am x , for any x ) cannot be exhausted until every object in the universe is mentioned. In this way Amergin includes the ineffable, since the poem operates on a field larger than speech. More Recent Art. In 1757 in A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and...

Forgery

Forgery   Reference library

Denis Dutton and Michael Wreen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,764 words

...his employer that it was a “rotten fake.”) Goodman’s position is illuminating in many respects, but his arguments have not gone unchallenged. Essentially, all three arguments concern perceptual training and discrimination in the service of sorting, and learning to sort, works as by X (e.g., van Meegeren) rather than as by Y (e.g., Vermeer). Sorting objects in terms of origin is no doubt an historical concern, and sometimes an important one, but why, critics have asked, is it a matter of aesthetics? Goodman’s arguments apply just as well to widgets coming off...

Bourgeois, Louise

Bourgeois, Louise (1911–2010)   Reference library

Mignon Nixon

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,523 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2 (1999): 71–100. Potts, Alex . “Louise Bourgeois—Sculptural Confrontations.” Oxford Art Journal 22, no. 2 (1999): 37–53. Robbins, Daniel . “Sculpture by Louise Bourgeois.” Art International 8 (20 October 1964): 29–31. Rubin, William S. “Some Reflections Prompted by the Recent Work of Louise Bourgeois.” Studio International 8 (20 April 1969): 17–20. Storr, Robert . Louise Bourgeois Drawings . New York: Robert Miller Gallery, 1988. Strick, Jeremy . Louise Bourgeois: The Personages . Saint Louis, Mo.: Saint Louis Museum of Art, 1994. Wagner, Anne...

Text

Text   Reference library

Jeffrey R. Di Leo

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,564 words

...in a way that manifests the rules of its functioning is the goal of critical activity, Derrida challenged a position predicated on the ability to objectively describe objects in the world. His textualism asserts that we cannot provide answers to questions such as “What is X?”—whether X is art in general or a particular painting or musical composition. Although Derrida’s grammatological structure is discernible, it denies us the possibility of objective description in aesthetics. The Limits of Expansion. One of the reasons for the expansion of “text” as a key...

Evaluation

Evaluation   Reference library

George Dickie and Barbara Herrnstein Smith

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,825 words

...Beardsley’s account of evaluational criteria. He noted that Beardsley held that the presence or increase of any one of his criteria—unity, intensity, complexity—must always contribute positively to an artwork’s overall value. For Beardsley, a critical principle must have the form: “X in an artwork is always valuable,” with “valuable” being understood to mean “contributes positively to overall value.” Sibley argued that Beardsley’s requirement cannot be maintained because adverse interactions among his three criteria are possible; for example, a work’s...

Augustine

Augustine   Reference library

Oleg V. Bychkov and Victor V. Bychkov

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,691 words

...vera religione .” Vigiliae Christianae 47 (1993): 363–373. O’Connell, R. J. Art and the Christian Intelligence in St. Augustine . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978. Ramirez, E. R. J. “Augustine’s Proof for God’s Existence from the Experience of Beauty: Conf. X.6.” Augustinian Studies 19 (1988): 121–130. Schmitt, A. “Zahl und Schönheit in Augustins De musica VI.” Würzburger Jahrbücher für die Altertumswissenshaft n.f. 16 (1990): 221–237. Stock, B. Augustine the Reader: Meditation, Self-knowledge, and the Ethics of Interpretation...

Film

Film   Reference library

Noël Carroll, Paul Messaris, Carl Plantinga, Edward Dimendberg, David Bordwell, and Stephen Prince

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
17,115 words
Illustration(s):
1

...this seminal vampire masterpiece will continue to exist as long as at least one template of it does, whether in the form of a film print, a videocassette, or a computer program. So, x is a motion picture image (1) only if x is a detached display, (2) only if x is a member of the class of things wherein the impression of movement is possible, and (3) only if a token performance of x is generated by means of a template that is itself a token. These are not the only necessary features of the motion picture image, nor are these conditions jointly sufficient for...

Goodman, Nelson

Goodman, Nelson   Reference library

Avishai Margalit, Nelson Goodman, and Remei Capdevila-Werning

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,201 words

...or important. In its place he presents a new challenge: how to distinguish between valid and invalid inductive inferences. Goodman’s inventiveness is apparent in the way he presents the problem. He devises an extremely artificial predicate, which he calls “grue,” defining “x is grue” as “x is examined before time t (say, the year 2100 ) and is green, or is not examined before this time and is blue.” Imagine, then, some emeralds that were examined before 2100 and were found to be green. These emeralds fit the definition of grue. Any stones that are observed...

Iconoclasm

Iconoclasm   Reference library

Christopher S. Wood and James Simpson

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
8,151 words

...images that are “abused with pilgrimages or offerings … ye shall, for avoiding that most detestable sin of idolatry, forthwith take down and delay [destroy]” ( Frere and Kennedy, 1910 , p. 38). Legislation of this kind has a fatal weakness, since it confidently assumes the ease of X-ray vision with which the bishop can see into the minds of those who might be idolatrous. So that first injunction was, needless to say, followed up by two more. By 1547 , at the very beginning of Edward VI’s reign, the reign that was to introduce the purifying iconoclasm of the...

Ontology of Art

Ontology of Art   Reference library

Joseph Margolis, Gregory Currie, Julie Van Camp, and Saul Fisher

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,270 words

...Aesthetics . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1990. Walton, Kendall . “Categories of Art.” Philosophical Review 79 (1970): 334–367. Wiggins, David . “Reply to Richard Wollheim.” Ratio 20 (1978): 52–68. Wollheim, Richard . “Are the Criteria of Identity That Hold for a Work of Art in the Different Arts Aesthetically Relevant?” Ratio 20 (1978): 29–48. Wollheim, Richard . Art and Its Objects . 2d ed. with six supplementary essays. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980. Wolterstorff, Nicholas . Works and Worlds...

Black Aesthetics

Black Aesthetics   Reference library

Paul C. Taylor and Sylvia Wynter

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,502 words

...the teachings of Swahili as a “nontribal” language of “self-determination,” sponsored community-based arts events, and inaugurated the celebration of black holidays, such as Uhuru Day (August 11, commemorating the 1965 Watts riot) and Kuzaliwa (May 19, celebrating Malcolm X’s birth) ( Van Deburg, 1992 , p. 171). Although he saw himself, in the terms of his adopted African name, as the “keeper” of the black community’s tradition, he nevertheless saw this tradition as one whose origin was in agrarian Africa, and as a tradition reinterpreted by him,...

Criticism

Criticism   Reference library

Andrew Ford, Michael R. Orwicz, Marianna De Marco Torgovnick, Graham McFee, Charles Palermo, and Sam Rose

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
17,070 words

...as his example, that the literary critic’s form par excellence, the essay, guarantees him “an ironic destiny with regard to the great questions of life” (p. 20). Said affirms that, like Socrates, whose “death perfectly symbolizes in its arbitrariness and irrelevance to those questions he debates,” the critic’s essay “is patently insufficient in its intellectuality with regard to living experience” (p. 20). Perhaps Said and Fish, in their recourse to the figure of Socrates, correctly signal a crisis in modern literary criticism that echoes the crisis that...

Beauty

Beauty   Reference library

Stephen David Ross, Nickolas Pappas, Jan A. Aertsen, and Nicholas Riggle

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
16,875 words

...Plato describes, in which unschooled shudders at the sight of a good-looking face lead upward to knowledge. The dependence of beauty-claims on species-claims means that the experience of beauty must be mediated by knowledge. One cannot call this a beautiful X until one knows what it is to be X. Thus, what Aristotle considers philosophical knowledge is logically prior to experiences of beauty, and that indeterminate quality that Plato found so compelling loses its pedagogical function. Despite these profound differences between Plato and Aristotle, it is...

Experimentalism

Experimentalism   Reference library

Benjamin Piekut, George E. Lewis, and Jeffrey Skoller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,296 words

...pp. 2–4). Early Experimental Film, Abstraction, Surrealism, Absolute Cinema. The links between scientific imaging and experimental film were more overt in later films, such as physician and filmmaker James Sibley Watson’s The Fall of the House of Usher ( 1928 ) with his use of X-ray cinematography and those of the French surrealist Jean Painlevé, who trained as a biologist and experimented with underwater cinematography. Known for his motto “science is fiction,” he made more than two hundred short science and nature films between the 1920s and 1960s,...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

Indra Kagis McEwen, Bissera V. Pentcheva, James S. Ackerman, Erika Naginski, Karsten Harries, David Goldblatt, Kristina Luce, and Aron Vinegar

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
25,690 words
Illustration(s):
6

...may have looked like originally and to accommodate this knowledge to the Vitruvian text. The change is documented in the appearance of masses of measured drawings of ancient buildings (much more numerous than project drawings) and in a letter of 1516–1518 written to Pope Leo X by Raphael and Baldassare Castiglione proposing a systematic survey of the remains of ancient Rome and calling for legislation to preserve them from further destruction. The architecture of the period followed suit—Bramante’s new Saint Peter, Raphael’s Villa Madama in Rome—employing...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

Mark Johnson, Josef Stern, Carl R. Hausman, David Summers, Samuel C. Wheeler III, and James Grant

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
18,932 words
Illustration(s):
1

...similarities that are specifiable in literal terms. Such a view grants rhetorical force and ornamental value to metaphor but denies it any crucial role in conceptualization and reasoning, dismissing it as nothing more than a set of literal similarity statements (such as “ X is similar to Y in respects R, S, T, …”). It is a much-debated question whether Aristotle, who gave us our first extended treatment of the subject, actually held this traditional comparison theory. His classic definition states that “metaphor consists in giving the thing a name that...

Politics

Politics   Reference library

Thijs Lijster, Steven C. Dubin, Mark Antliff, and James Miller

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
19,455 words
Illustration(s):
2

...S/he became the lightning rod for a heated controversy that included extensive debate in periodicals of the day, defacement with a bottle of ink, and even an order of banishment issued by Napoleon III. The sculptor Constantin Brancusi precipitated something similar with Princess X ( 1916 ). In one respect it resembles the classic pose of a madonna, her enshrouded head tilted reverentially. But it also unmistakably resembles a set of male genitalia, the penis gracefully arched over the scrotum. The salon president had it removed from the Salon des...

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Von

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Von (1775)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,327 words

...makes aesthetics the region that unites theoretical and practical philosophy, not the passive experience of viewer, auditor, or reader, but the peculiar productive activity of the artist: “aesthetic intuition.” In Kant's language, an intuition of x is both my representation of x and the production of the x represented. In producing the work of art, the “intuitive” creator performs a knowing-as-doing that is more fundamental than the nonproductive knowing and the noncognitive production that differentiate “knowing” and “doing” in other phenomenal...

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