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Inchon, landing at

Inchon, landing at (1950)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...had suffered an hour of doubt following an early misreport of failure, informed Washington that ‘the whole operation is proceeding on schedule’. By 20 September, 50,000 troops were ashore fighting for Seoul and meanwhile, preceded by an intense air and land bombardment, the UN and South Korean forces at Pusan shattered the NKPA and began to drive northwards. On 26 September, a divisional column joined elements of X Corps close to Seoul. By then, NKPA remnants were joining guerrilla bands in the south or filtering northwards across the 38th Parallel, incapable...

Rezonville/Gravelotte, battles of

Rezonville/Gravelotte, battles of (1870)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Rezonville. Le Boeuf's III Corps was at Verneville and the Guard at Gravelotte, while Ladmirault's IV Corps marched up from Metz. Bazaine's sloth confused Moltke ‘the Elder’, the German COS. The right wing of Second Army—Rheinbaben's cavalry at Puxieux, Voigts-Rhetz's X Corps at Thiaucourt, and Alvensleben's III Corps, marching up from Gorze—had no idea that it faced the main French force. Rheinbaben shelled Forton out of Mars la Tour at about 09.00, but when Alvensleben arrived he realized what he was dealing with. Recognizing that only...

Philippines, Liberation of the

Philippines, Liberation of the (1944–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...invasion, and on 3 October they acknowledged that an attack on Luzon would follow. Shielded by Adm. William F. Halsey 's Third Fleet and Vice Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid 's Seventh, Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger 's Sixth Army (X and XXIV Corps) of MacArthur's Southwest Pacific Area command streamed ashore against light opposition on 20 October . MacArthur and his aides waded ashore, fulfilling his 1942 pledge, “I shall return.” Convinced that the naval Battle of Leyte Gulf (24– 25 October ) had seriously weakened the Americans, the local Japanese Army...

Religious Services, Byzantine

Religious Services, Byzantine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

.... Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984. Nikephoros II Phokas . Praecepta militaria . Translated with commentary in E. McGeer , Sowing the Dragon's Teeth: Byzantine Warfare in the Tenth Century . Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1995. Pertusi, A . “ Una acolouthia militare inedita del X secolo. ” Aevum 22 (1948): 145–168. Secondary Works Dennis, G. T . “Religious Services in the Byzantine Army.” In Eulogema: Studies in Honor of Robert Taft, SJ , pp. 107–117. Studia Anselmiana 110. Rome: Centro Studi S. Anselmo, 1993. Viellefond, J . “ Les pratiques religieuses...

space, military implications of

space, military implications of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...those designed for the early detection of ballistic missile launches and those that detect nuclear explosions. They tend to have focal-plane array telescopes with infra-red sensors to detect the heat exhaust of a missile, or atmospheric burst sensors which detect the visible light, x-ray, and electromagnetic pulse emissions of a nuclear explosion. The USA operates these systems on the DSP (Defense Support Program) satellites in geosynchronous orbit and the new Navstar navigation satellites, while the Russians have a constellation of nine satellites in a highly...

Korean War

Korean War (1950–1953)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Eighth Army in the main attack against the North Korean capital of P’yongyang without adequate combat support. As the supporting attack, he planned another powerful amphibious assault by X Corps to strike the east coast port of Wonsan on 20 October . Although the Eighth Army advanced rapidly toward P’yongyang against light resistance, the amphibious attack by X Corps was six days late landing in its objective area because mine sweepers had to clear an elaborate minefield. On 11 October , Wonsan fell to a South Korean corps, almost two weeks before the...

amphibious operations

amphibious operations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...optional procedure in the late 20th and early 21st century. During the Gulf War, an amphibious assault force composed of US naval and USMC elements was deployed off the coast of Kuwait. Its purpose was to pin the 6 Iraqi divisions deployed along the coast and prevent their redeployment into the main combat zone. The operation was considered a great success, as it had pinned down in excess of 40,000 Iraqi troops and thus enabled Coalition forces to manoeuvre around the Iraqi defences, and outflank the coastal defence forces. On 20 March 2003 , British Royal...

Missiles

Missiles   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...dispersed to cover an area about the size of a football field; a single hit was deadly. During World War II, the Germans developed radio‐controlled and wire‐guided versions of the Henschel Hs 298, and the supersonic wire‐guided X‐4, designed by Dr. Max Kramer in 1943 . Both missiles were intended to have proximity fuses, with the X‐4 testing an acoustic version. Their most important legacy was probably in proving the feasibility of wire guidance, which has been so widely used on antiarmor rocket weapons. The Cold War requirement to shoot down incoming...

Korean war

Korean war (1950–3)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,945 words
Illustration(s):
1

...He withdrew his line 150 miles (241 km) south below the Han, abandoning Seoul. Almond's X Corps in the north-east began a closely contested withdrawal to the coast. Many in the UN Command believed that they would be driven out of Korea altogether. The Korean war , 1950–1. The UN forces moved in trucks. The Chinese marched. When the latter again closed on the UN and ROK positions in January 1951 , they were suffering from exposure in temperatures often below 20 °C at night, lacking proper clothing and supplies. P'eng asked for a pause but Mao urged him...

Iberia

Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
36,499 words
Illustration(s):
6

...antiguos reinos de León y de Castilla . 5 vols. Madrid, Spain: Real Academia de Historia, 1861–1903. Crónica de Alfonso X . In Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla, desde don Alfonso el Sabio, hasta los Católicos don Fernando y doña Isabel , edited by Cayetano Rosell, vol. 1. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, vol. 66. Madrid, Spain: Rivadeneyra, 1875. Translated by Shelby Thacker and José Escobar as The Chronicle of Alfonso X (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2002). Crónica de Fernando IV . In Crónicas de los reyes de Castilla, desde don...

Cold War (1945–91)

Cold War (1945–91)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... totalitarianism. Scholars who argued from this perspective came to be known as the “orthodox” (or “traditional”) school and generally viewed U.S. actions as being virtuous and sincere. George F. Kennan , in his Long Telegram to the State Department and later writing as “Mr. X” in his article The Sources of Soviet Conduct ” in Foreign Affairs ( July 1947 ), remains the classic formulator of this argument. He noted that Soviet actions were inexorably expansionist, antidemocratic, and posed a very real threat to the United States and its allies. The...

Disciplinary Views of War

Disciplinary Views of War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...make biased estimates of their adversary's strength, intent, and willingness to fight. However, Philip Tetlock noted that debates about nuclear deterrence are highly speculative since they typically rely on counterfactual arguments such as “What would have happened if event X had or had not occurred?” Much debate continues about whether psychological research is policy‐relevant and when it is legitimate for scientists to advocate particular policies. The interplay of cognitive and small group processes was emphasized by Irving Janis , who showed how...

Slavic Lands

Slavic Lands   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
15,013 words
Illustration(s):
1

...on Northern Orders ; Płowce, Battle near ; Prokop the Bald ; Sigismund of Luxemburg ; Ştefan cel Mare ; Velbužd, Battle of ; Vidin, Siege of ; and Žižka, Jan .] Bibliography Angelov, Dimitňr , and Boris ňolpanov . Bňlgarska voenna istorija ot vtorata ňetvňrt na X vek do vtorata polovina na XV vek . Sofia: Izdatelstvo na Bňlgarskata Akademija na Naukite, 1989. Biskup, Marian . Wojny Polski z Zakonem Krzy⊙ackim, 1308–1521 . Gdańsk, Poland: Marpress, 1993. Crummey, Robert O. The Formation of Moscovy, 1340–1613 . London: Longman, 1987....

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
34,325 words
Illustration(s):
7

...Blasio chronica . Edited by Adolf Hofmeister . Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum 47. Hanover and Leipzig, Germany: Hahn, 1912. An English translation of the main parts is available at http://www.leeds.ac.uk/history/weblearning/MedievalHistoryTextCentre/Otto%20of%20Sankt%20Blasien.doc . Otto I , Bishop of Freising . The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa . Translated by CharlesChristopher Mierow . New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. First published 1956. Rainaldof Dassel . “Letter on the Battle of Tusculum (1167)”. In Pontificum Romanorum...

Low Countries

Low Countries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,845 words
Illustration(s):
2

...vooral in Vlaenderen en Brabant, en ook in de aengrenzende landstreken van 1377 tot 1443 . Edited by Jean-Jacques Lambin . Ypres, Belgium: Lambin, 1835. Dynter, Edmond de . Chronica nobilissimorum ducum Lotharingiae et Brabantiae ac regum Francorum . Edited by P. F. X. de Ram . Translated by Jean Wauquelin . 3 vols. Brussels: Hayez, 1854–1860. Escouchy, Mathieu d’ . Chronique de Mathieu d’Escouchy . Edited by Gastondu Fresne de Beaucourt . 3 vols. Paris: Renouard, 1863–1864. Froissart, Jean . Chronicles of England, France, and Spain and the...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...Society, 1848–1849. Geoffrey of Monmouth . Historia regum Britanniae . Edited by Acton Griscom . Translated by RobertEllis Jones . London: Longmans, Green, 1929. Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis) . Expugnatio Hibernica . Edited and translated by A. B. Scott and F. X. Martin . Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1978. Gesta Stephani . Edited and translated by K. R. Potter . Introduction and notes by R. H. C. Davis . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. The Great Roll of the Pipe for the Reign of King Henry the Second . 30 vols. London: Pipe Roll Society,...

France

France   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
31,203 words
Illustration(s):
6

...cost of this warfare to the French crown had far-reaching political consequences. Though a new French army assembled in 1314 to meet renewed disturbances in Flanders achieved little, the hostility aroused by war taxation forced the king to cancel the subsidy and his heir, Louis X (r. 1314–1316 ), to grant charters of liberty to provincial leagues in 1315 . That same year, the refusal of Robert of Flanders to perform homage led to the raising of yet another invasion force, but heavy rains and widespread flooding forced the French to withdraw. A further...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
40,841 words
Illustration(s):
3

...de Rome, 1988. Moro, Pierandrea . Quam horrida pugna: Elementi per uno studio della guerra nell’Alto Medioevo Italiano (Secoli VI–X) . Venice, Italy: Il Cardo, 1994. Ordinamenti militari in occidente nell’Alto Medioevo: 30 Marzo–5 Aprile 1967. 2 vols. Spoleto, Italy: Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo, 1968. Pertusi, Agostino . “Ordinamenti militari, guerre in occidente e teorie di guerra dei Bizantini (secc. VI–X)”. In Ordinamenti militari in occidente nell’Alto Medioevo: 30 Marzo–5 Aprile 1967 , pp. 631–700. Spoleto, Italy: Centro Italiano di...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and defeated those who attempted to block their passage. Fortunately for the Byzantines, the Uzes, like the Pechenegs in 1047 , fell victim to disease. Some survivors were recruited into the Byzantine army. The persistent threat posed by the various nomadic peoples led Constantine X Doukas (r. 1059–1067 ), formerly a general, to believe that security was better achieved by appeasement. But even this broke down in the fiscal and political crises of the 1070s. In 1071 the Hungarians attacked the Byzantine fortress of Belgrade, the Pechenegs plundered...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...Origins and Impact , edited by J. Phillips . Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 1997. See pp. 5–20. France, John . Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Gervers, Michael , ed. The Second Crusade and the Cistercians . New York: St. Martin’s, 1992. Gesta Francorum et aliorum Hierosolimitanorum . Edited by Rosalind Hill . Edinburgh: Nelson, 1962. Pp. 19–20. Gilchrist, John . “The Erdmann Thesis and the Canon Law”. In Crusade and Settlement , edited by P. W. Edbury ....

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