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Container Ship

Container Ship   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
644 words

...Pan Atlantic Tanker Company. The parent company was renamed Sea-Land Service, Inc., in 1960 . On April 26, 1956 , McLean introduced the first scheduled container service between Port Elizabeth, New Jersey , and Houston, Texas , with the converted Pan Atlantic T2 tanker Ideal X , carrying fifty-eight containers on deck. On the West Coast, the Matson Navigation Company used a converted C3-type cargo vessel, Hawaiian Merchant , to carry containers between San Francisco and Honolulu from August 1958 on. The company soon set up a research department...

Dönitz, Karl

Dönitz, Karl (1891–1980)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
1,303 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Deutsche Marinen im Wandel: Vom Symbol nationaler Einheit zum Instrument internationaler Sicherheit , edited by Werner Rahn , pp. 525–545. Munich: Oldenbourg, 2005. Ministry of Defence (Navy). U-Boat War in the Atlantic, 1939–1945 . London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1989x. Mulligan, Timothy P. Neither Sharks nor Wolves: The Men of Nazi Germany’s U-Boat Arm, 1939–1945 . Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1999. Padfield, Peter . Dönitz: The Last Führer; Portrait of a Nazi War Leader . London: Gollancz, 1984. Salewski, Michael . Die deutsche...

Yachting and Pleasure Sailing

Yachting and Pleasure Sailing   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,374 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Displacement: 615 kg (1,350 lb) Sail area (approximate): 15.2 sq m (140 sq ft) plus spinnaker X One-Design. One of the oldest and most active British racing classes, the nearly century-old X Class (or X OD) numbers approximately 200 boats (all built of wood), with 170 actively raced off the south coast of England and as many as 90 sailing in the class’s national championship. Designed by Arthur Westmacott in 1909 , the X is a three-person boat. LOA: 6.30 m (20′8″) Beam: 1.8 m (5′11″) Displacement: 1,260 kg (2,800 lb) Sail area (sloop rig): 16.56 sq m (184...

Warships

Warships   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,668 words
Illustration(s):
5

...in the naval battle between the Romans and the Carthaginians at Ecnomus in 256 b.c.e. the “five” carried 300 oarsmen, 120 marines, and approximately 50 officers and nonmilitary personnel. Assuming that there were three rows of oarsmen, a distribution of 2 x 29 thalamites , 2 x 29 zygites , and 1 x 34 thranites on each side seems a reasonable estimate, given the unequal length of the tiers. The vessels must have been longer than the nearly 37 meters (121 feet) of the trireme. The race for larger ships . The experiments of Greek and Phoenician...

Coastal Navigation

Coastal Navigation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
9,697 words

...and suggested pairs of marks that could be aligned in transit to give a leading line into a haven or between shallows. For example, the approach to Dieppe is described in the Middle Low German Seebuch thus: “unde brengen de kerke ende de ghalge over eyn unde setten uppe x vadem” (and bring the church and the gallows into transit and anchor in ten fathoms). The cost of building and maintaining structures and fire beacons as aids to navigation was generally borne by a tax on passing ships, levied by the local port town. From 1280 the town of ...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
9,841 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in the world. Its subject is the Battle of Gibraltar ( 1607 ), the first major victory by the Dutch fleet in Spanish waters. In 1622 Cornelis Claesz. van Wieringen ( 1580–1633 ) received a commission from the Admiralty of Amsterdam to depict the battle on a huge canvas (180 x 490 cm). Right in the center of the painting Van Wieringen included a small vessel bearing the coat of arms of Stadtholder Maurice of Nassau , the Prince of Orange. We know from archival sources that no such vessel had been deployed in the battle by the admiralties. As the...

Ocean Governance

Ocean Governance   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,816 words
Illustration(s):
1

...law. Still with respect to the affirmation of preexisting rights, Part X of the Law of the Sea Convention (articles 124–132) also specifies a number of rules concerning the right of access of land-locked states to and from the sea, and the concomitant right to traverse transit states to and from the sea. The main provision in this regard is to be found in article 125 of the convention, which sets out the right of access to and from the sea for land-locked states in mandatory terms. Part X also stipulates, inter alia, that the right of access for land-locked...

Magnetism

Magnetism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by electromagnetic instruments, such as the coil magnetometer (F. E. Smith, 1920s), the fluxgate magnetometer (Victor Vacquier, 1940s), and the proton precession magnetometer (Martin Packard, 1950s). Rather than declination, inclination, and total intensity, these measured the X (east), Y (north), and Z (down) component of the local geomagnetic vector. The latter two devices could be used for submarine detection and oil exploration, and were carried by aircraft on a gyroscopically stabilized platform. Shortly after Zarya took to sea, the U.S. Navy...

Ancient Navies

Ancient Navies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,774 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in the long run to base the power politics of an empire on the capacities of the city-states within its domain. [ See also Athens ; Salamis, Battle of ; Strategy ; and Tactics .] Briant, Pierre . Histoire de l’empire perse de Cyrus à Alexandre . 2 vols. Achaemenid History X. Leiden, The Netherlands: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten; Paris: Fayard, 1996. Wallinga, H. T. Ships and Sea-power before the Great Persian War: The Ancestry of the Ancient Trireme . Leiden, The Netherlands; New York; and Cologne, Germany: Brill, 1993. H. T. Wallinga...

Whaling

Whaling   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
15,297 words
Illustration(s):
2

..., brother of perpetrator Samuel Comstock , has been differently reinterpreted by Gregory Gibson ( Demon of the Waters , 2002 ) and Thomas Heffernan ( Mutiny on the Globe , 2002 ), while Joan Druett has revisited murder and rebellion on the whaleboat Sharon in 1841x2013;1845 ( In the Wake of Madness , 2003 ). Modern whaling is documented in the Norsk Hvalfangst Tidende (Norwegian Whaling Gazette), a trade magazine published throughout the industry’s twentieth-century heyday. Modern whaling is also documented in patent documents, catch...

Wars, Maritime

Wars, Maritime   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
42,659 words
Illustration(s):
5

...assert air superiority over an increasing portion of the Norwegian littoral. The Royal Navy’s carriers and their air groups had not been designed to contest air superiority with a land-based air force and could do little to help. The Luftwaffe’s maritime specialists, Fliegerkorps X , were able to hold off the Allied surface forces and prevent successful counterattacks, except in the far north at Narvik. The Allies were able to capture this port, forcing the Germans to destroy its vital facilities, but Narvik had to be abandoned because of events in France ...

Medieval Navies

Medieval Navies   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
27,594 words
Illustration(s):
3

...on Genoese ships. The Thirteenth Century With the taking of Seville in 1248 , Castile inherited the Muslim naval administration and formed the office of the admiral in Castile , or almirantazgo , though the office is not mentioned until 1254 during the reign of Alfonso X. Under Alfonso the almirantazgo was divided into two separate offices to control the distant coasts and ports of northern and southern Castile that were separated by Portugal . The northern administration was centered at Burgos, while the southern administration was centered...

Inchon, landing at

Inchon, landing at (1950)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...had suffered an hour of doubt following an early misreport of failure, informed Washington that ‘the whole operation is proceeding on schedule’. By 20 September, 50,000 troops were ashore fighting for Seoul and meanwhile, preceded by an intense air and land bombardment, the UN and South Korean forces at Pusan shattered the NKPA and began to drive northwards. On 26 September, a divisional column joined elements of X Corps close to Seoul. By then, NKPA remnants were joining guerrilla bands in the south or filtering northwards across the 38th Parallel, incapable...

Rezonville/Gravelotte, battles of

Rezonville/Gravelotte, battles of (1870)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Rezonville. Le Boeuf's III Corps was at Verneville and the Guard at Gravelotte, while Ladmirault's IV Corps marched up from Metz. Bazaine's sloth confused Moltke ‘the Elder’, the German COS. The right wing of Second Army—Rheinbaben's cavalry at Puxieux, Voigts-Rhetz's X Corps at Thiaucourt, and Alvensleben's III Corps, marching up from Gorze—had no idea that it faced the main French force. Rheinbaben shelled Forton out of Mars la Tour at about 09.00, but when Alvensleben arrived he realized what he was dealing with. Recognizing that only...

Philippines, Liberation of the

Philippines, Liberation of the (1944–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...invasion, and on 3 October they acknowledged that an attack on Luzon would follow. Shielded by Adm. William F. Halsey 's Third Fleet and Vice Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid 's Seventh, Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger 's Sixth Army (X and XXIV Corps) of MacArthur's Southwest Pacific Area command streamed ashore against light opposition on 20 October . MacArthur and his aides waded ashore, fulfilling his 1942 pledge, “I shall return.” Convinced that the naval Battle of Leyte Gulf (24– 25 October ) had seriously weakened the Americans, the local Japanese Army...

Religious Services, Byzantine

Religious Services, Byzantine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

.... Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984. Nikephoros II Phokas . Praecepta militaria . Translated with commentary in E. McGeer , Sowing the Dragon's Teeth: Byzantine Warfare in the Tenth Century . Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1995. Pertusi, A . “ Una acolouthia militare inedita del X secolo. ” Aevum 22 (1948): 145–168. Secondary Works Dennis, G. T . “Religious Services in the Byzantine Army.” In Eulogema: Studies in Honor of Robert Taft, SJ , pp. 107–117. Studia Anselmiana 110. Rome: Centro Studi S. Anselmo, 1993. Viellefond, J . “ Les pratiques religieuses...

space, military implications of

space, military implications of   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...those designed for the early detection of ballistic missile launches and those that detect nuclear explosions. They tend to have focal-plane array telescopes with infra-red sensors to detect the heat exhaust of a missile, or atmospheric burst sensors which detect the visible light, x-ray, and electromagnetic pulse emissions of a nuclear explosion. The USA operates these systems on the DSP (Defense Support Program) satellites in geosynchronous orbit and the new Navstar navigation satellites, while the Russians have a constellation of nine satellites in a highly...

Korean War

Korean War (1950–1953)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Eighth Army in the main attack against the North Korean capital of P’yongyang without adequate combat support. As the supporting attack, he planned another powerful amphibious assault by X Corps to strike the east coast port of Wonsan on 20 October . Although the Eighth Army advanced rapidly toward P’yongyang against light resistance, the amphibious attack by X Corps was six days late landing in its objective area because mine sweepers had to clear an elaborate minefield. On 11 October , Wonsan fell to a South Korean corps, almost two weeks before the...

Korean War

Korean War (1950–1953)   Reference library

Roy K. Flint and Timothy J. Lynch

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...weakened Eighth Army in the main attack against the North Korean capital of P’yongyang without adequate combat support. As the supporting attack, he planned another powerful amphibious assault by X Corps to strike the east coast port of Wonsan on 20 October. Although the Eighth Army advanced rapidly toward P’yongyang against light resistance, the amphibious attack by X Corps was six days late landing in its objective area because mine sweepers had to clear an elaborate minefield. On 11 October, Wonsan fell to a South Korean corps, almost two weeks before the...

amphibious operations

amphibious operations   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...optional procedure in the late 20th and early 21st century. During the Gulf War, an amphibious assault force composed of US naval and USMC elements was deployed off the coast of Kuwait. Its purpose was to pin the 6 Iraqi divisions deployed along the coast and prevent their redeployment into the main combat zone. The operation was considered a great success, as it had pinned down in excess of 40,000 Iraqi troops and thus enabled Coalition forces to manoeuvre around the Iraqi defences, and outflank the coastal defence forces. On 20 March 2003 , British Royal...

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