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Vienna

Vienna   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
644 words

...but it is a recurring, and divisive, political topic. [ See also Austria . ] Bibliography Csendes, Peter , and Ferdinand Opll , ed. Wien: Geschichte einer Stadt . Vol. 3: Von 1790 bis zur Gegenwart. Vienna: Böhlau, 2006. Eder, Franz X. , Peter Eigner , Andreas Resch , and Andreas Weigl . Wien im 20. Jahrhundert: Wirtschaft, Bevölkerung, Konsum . Innsbruck, Austria: Studien Verlag, 2003. Peter...

Papacy

Papacy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,069 words
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1

... 53 (1985): 773–796. Daniel-Rops, Henry . The Church in an Age of Revolution, 1789–1870 . Translated by John Warington . London: J. M. Dent; New York: Dutton, 1965. Falconi, Carlo . The Popes in the Twentieth Century: From Pius X to John XXIII . Translated by Muriel Grindrod . Boston: Little, Brown, 1967. Murphy, Francis X. The Papacy Today . New York: Macmillan, 1981. Nichols, Peter . The Politics of the Vatican . London: Pall Mall, 1968. Shultenover, David . A View from Rome: On the Eve of the Modernist Crisis . New York: Fordham University Press,...

Denmark

Denmark   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
959 words
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1

...and industry. The currency was devalued by 20 per cent, agricultural debts were restructured, and agricultural taxes were reduced. The recovery of the export‐orientated agricultural sector would then pay for social welfare reforms in the cities, and create jobs in industry. After the outbreak of World War II, Denmark affirmed its neutrality, and was the only Scandinavian country to conclude a non‐aggression treaty with Hitler in late 1939 . Still, it was invaded on 9 April 1940 . King Christian X remained in Copenhagen, while Danish resistance led...

Postal Services

Postal Services   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,775 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of threats of mail bombs (like the Unabomber bombings from the late 1970s to the 1990s) and bioterrorism (beginning with the 2001 anthrax attacks that killed five people and injured seventeen others), the U.S. Postal Service subjects mail to security tests that include scanning, X-raying, and irradiating parcels and letters. The rapidly advancing technologies of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries are providing many alternatives to conventional postal services; for example, the Internet facilitates the almost instantaneous sending of...

Space Exploration.

Space Exploration.   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,591 words
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1

...turn of the twentieth century when scientists started using balloons to carry instruments to 100,000 feet (30,480 meters) to study cosmic rays. After World War II sounding rockets arcing up to 400,000 feet (121,920 meters) gave scientists a fleeting glimpse of the ultraviolet and X-ray radiation from the Sun and stars. Although this effort harvested a wealth of scientific data, space exploration received an immeasurable boost from the International Geophysical Year ( IGY ) of July 1957 to December 1958 , a cooperative scientific endeavor to study...

Book Publishing

Book Publishing   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,455 words

...1966 . There were a record forty-seven publishing industry mergers in 1968 , and there were forty-four the following year. It was still possible for an independent like Grove Press to prosper with an avant-garde list ( Allen Ginsberg , William Burroughs , Henry Miller , Malcolm X , Samuel Beckett ), but even it was taken over by the Atlantic Monthly Press in 1985 . Europe. In ancien régime France, the press was subject to state censorship and guild restrictions. However, banned books (political criticism, subversive Enlightenment philosophy, pornography)...

France

France   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,849 words
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3

...not quell fears that these concessions would be whittled away, especially when the cautious Louis XVIII was succeeded by his more reactionary brother Charles X in 1824 . When Charles X 's ministers responded to an electoral setback in July 1830 by attempting to change parts of the charter and to control the press, they provoked a violent response. After three days of rioting in Paris, Charles X fled the capital. Liberal leaders, anxious to keep the revolution from getting out of hand, quickly installed Louis-Philippe , head of the Orléans branch of the...

Algeria

Algeria   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,120 words
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3

...gas were discovered in the Sahara in the mid-1950s. In the postcolonial era, the Algerian regime assumed a leadership position in the Third World bloc and in Pan-Africanism, offering a refuge for revolutionary movements and leaders, including the American black radical Malcolm X. The civil war that broke out in 1992 over the nature of the state and the political process was partially associated with growing transnational Islamist movements in North Africa and elsewhere but was also linked to the Afghan Wars of the 1980s between the United States and the...

Marriage and Divorce

Marriage and Divorce   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
7,848 words
Illustration(s):
3

...available late in the twentieth century. The Colonial Period. Marriage practices in Latin America were closely regulated according to Iberian tradition. In thirteenth-century Spain, marriage became codified under Spanish law through the Siete Partidas (Seven-Part Code) of Alfonso X of Castile. These statutory codes defined marriage as a contract between husband and wife and emphasized the relationship as a property arrangement. The Siete Partidas provided women with a number of protections with respect to marriage. For example, parents could not force their...

Africa

Africa   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
11,388 words

...greater educational opportunity, better health services, and the enjoyment of a wide range of political and social freedoms. Good Governance vs. Poor Governance. What do we mean when we say that a sub-Saharan African country is well or poorly governed? When we report that country X is better governed than country Y, what do we know and how do we know it? On what basis can we justifiably categorize African nation-states according to their quality of governance? Governance is the effective provision of political goods to citizens. Of those political goods, the...

Christianity

Christianity   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
15,290 words
Illustration(s):
5

...novarum (Of New Things, 1891 ). This document promoted Catholic trade unions and charity and demanded respect and protection for the poor as an alternative to socialism and communism, but it insisted that private property and social inequalities are established by God. Pius X ( r. 1903–1914 ), Benedict XV ( r. 1914–1922 ), Pius XI ( r. 1922–1939 ), and Pius XII ( r. 1939–1958 ) all drew their inspiration from Pius IX. Their insistence on a hierarchical understanding of society and their uncompromising attitude on the authority of the church in...

Islam

Islam   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
18,580 words
Illustration(s):
2

...D. Fard created the all-black Nation of Islam in Detroit, and though he disappeared by 1934 , Elijah Muhammad ( Elijah Poole , 1897–1975 ), a migrant from Georgia, built the Nation of Islam into a multimillion-dollar religious empire. Aided by his national spokesman Malcolm X ( 1925–1965 ), Elijah Muhammad advocated clean living, black nationalism, and ethnic pride. To most other Muslims, his claim that Fard was God in the flesh and that he was a messenger of God was heretical. In 1975 Elijah Muhammad died, and his son, Wallace D. Muhammad ( b....

United States

United States   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
33,685 words
Illustration(s):
12

...Truman, Secretary of State George C. Marshall, Paul Hoffmann, and Averell Harriman discuss the Marshall Plan at the Oval Office, 29 November 1948. Truman Presidential Museum and Library strategy. A public relations offensive—capped by Kennan's publication (under the pseudonym “Mr. X”) of a declassified version of the “Long Telegram” in the July 1947 issue of Foreign Affairs —even had the nation speaking the language of containment. However, two cataclysmic events in the fall of 1949 combined to shake Americans from their complacency and to cast their gaze...

Women

Women   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
26,278 words
Illustration(s):
5

...the middle of the twentieth century, women dominated the new ranks of computer programmers, only to be driven out as the occupation took off. As more sophisticated health-care services developed with the biological revolution of the post–World War II world, genetic counselors, X-ray and other imaging technicians, and an array of wellness positions were held by women. In addition, male occupations such as lawyer and stockbroker, closed to women by law, also opened up in the twentieth century. The contributions to the economy by such scientific pioneers as...

Empire and Imperialism

Empire and Imperialism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
48,163 words
Illustration(s):
1

...consul, whom the dey of Algiers had swatted with a fly whisk three years earlier. The probable causes, however, were unresolved economic tensions created over grain payments during the Napoleonic period and a desire to divert attention from the political problems besetting Charles X's regime. What started as a brief disciplinary action ended in 132 years of colonial rule. The conquest of Algeria lasted twenty-seven years. The French encountered fierce resistance, first from the Arabs, under the leadership of Abdelkader , and then from the Kabyles, Berbers from...

Climate Change and the American City

Climate Change and the American City   Reference library

Andrew Hurley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,328 words

...carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The grave dangers associated with excessive heat, on the other hand, persisted well into the 20th century . For much of the 19th century , summer mortality exceeded that of other seasons, primarily due to illnesses related to food spoilage and the proliferation of water-borne bacteria. Sanitation reforms and public regulation of food and milk supplies in the early 20th century reduced this peril, but city dwellers continued to suffer from the direct impact of excessive heat, especially when it descended on...

Religion in the American City, 1900–2000

Religion in the American City, 1900–2000   Reference library

Christopher D. Cantwell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
10,537 words

...had continued unabated throughout the entire 20th century . Much of this growth took place in cities throughout the Sunbelt, which benefited from the Rust Belt’s economic decline. But metropolitan regions as a whole also saw their numbers continue to climb. According to the 2010 Census, more than 80 percent of the US population then lived in metropolitan statistical areas, the highest such number in American history. The kinds of people moving to America’s cities in the final third of the 20th century also changed dramatically. Amendments to the...

Puerto Ricans in the United States

Puerto Ricans in the United States   Reference library

Lorrin Thomas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
11,146 words

...1960, Covello papers, series X, box 102, folder 10. 19. US Commission on Civil Rights , Puerto Ricans in the Continental United States: An Uncertain Future (A report of the US Commission on Civil Rights October, 1976), 47. 20. On the school boycott issue see, for instance, “Dr. Theobald Writes Letter to Parents,” New York Amsterdam News , September 10, 1960, 1; and J. Fitzpatrick , “Puerto Ricans in Perspective: The Meaning of Migration to the Mainland,” International Migration Review 2 (Spring 1968), 7–20, 11. 21. Counting the number of...

Asian Americans and the 1992 Los Angeles Uprising

Asian Americans and the 1992 Los Angeles Uprising   Reference library

Shelley Sang-Hee Lee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,501 words

...figure of the Korean riot victim to express their lamentations about American life in the late 20th century . To some, the experience of Koreans powerfully encapsulated a modern immigrant nightmare—an American dream shattered—while to others it merely confirmed the violent pathology of the black underclass. The visibility of Koreans (as well as Latinos) in the uprising, furthermore, forced Americans to acknowledge the stubborn reality of racism in the late 20th century and the fact that this was a complex problem that affected and implicated multiple—not...

Vietnamese Americans in Little Saigon, California

Vietnamese Americans in Little Saigon, California   Reference library

Phuong Nguyen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,039 words

...Associations (Santa Ana, CA: Newhope Library, 1992), 119 . 10. Howard Seelye , “Agencies Take Steps to Ease Overcrowding,” Los Angeles Times , November 16, 1976, OC1 . 11. Phạm Văn Phổ , “A Lot Changes in 20 Years,” Hiệp Nhất 28 (April 1995), 17 . 12. Monsignor Nguyễ n Duc Tien , “The Vietnamese Catholic Community at 20 (1975–1995)” Hiệp Nhất 28 (April 1995), 5 . 13. For more on Vietnamese Catholicism and religion in general, see Paul James Rutledge , The Role of Religion in Ethnic Self-Identity: A Vietnamese Community (Lanham,...

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