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Querini, Vincenzo

Querini, Vincenzo (1479–1514)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
376 words

...famous Libellus ad Leonem X of 1513 , a visionary and radical proposal for the revitalization of the entire church. The two Camaldolese minced no words in calling for a thorough cleansing of abuses at all levels of the hierarchy, the revision of the code of canon law, liturgical uniformity, and the tightening of discipline in religious orders. Most remarkable were their sweeping recommendations for missions to the newly discovered lands in America and for union with Eastern Christians. Querini's sudden death thwarted Pope Leo X 's plan to appoint him a...

Pio, Alberto

Pio, Alberto (1475–1531)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,280 words

...him of Carpi ( 1523 ) and confer it formally on Alfonso I d'Este ( 1530 ). For fifteen years ( 1512–1527 ) the papal court was the base of Pio's operations, and he enjoyed there the personal friendship and confidence of Julius II , Leo X , and Clement VII. In 1518 he married Cecilia Orsini, the daughter of Leo X's first cousin, by whom he had two daughters and a son, Giulio, who soon died. A friend and patron of humanists and artists, Pio was an important figure in the Roman academy. On religious matters he espoused pious, learned, and conservative...

Paul III

Paul III (1468–1549)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,022 words

...was intimate with Farnese's sister, Giulia. As cardinal (appointed 1493 ) but prior to his priestly ordination ( 1519 ), he kept a mistress and fathered four children, three of whom (Pier Luigi, Paolo, and Ranuccio) were legitimized during the papal reigns of Julius II and Leo X . Many consider Paul III the first pope committed to efficacious reform of the Catholic church in the sixteenth century. The reasons for this include his election announcement of his intention to hold a general council, as well as his consistent promotion of qualified candidates to...

Portugal

Portugal   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
1,163 words

...of the Congo and Angola stagnated because of the slave trade, the Christian message was carried, with Jesuits in the forefront, to Portuguese Asia and Brazil. Despite European anxieties and prejudice, natives were often educated and ordained to the clergy. In 1518 Leo X consecrated as a bishop a son of the king of Congo, who in 1521 established his see in his homeland. Goa became Christian, while the indigenous Nestorian Christian community of the Malabar Coast was coerced into orthodoxy. In Japan, after considerable success and a belated...

Bible

Bible   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
18,271 words

...were detected by Johannes Oecolampadius, the future reformer of Basel, a proofreader for the printer Johann Froben. This publishing house printed a first run of three thousand copies of the Novum Instrumentum , which sold quickly. The Novum Instrumentum , dedicated to Pope Leo X , consisted of an introduction, the Greek text, the new Latin translations, and notes. On the basis of the manuscripts he consulted, Erasmus omitted 1 John 5:7, the Comma Johanneum (“Johannine Comma”), which he subsequently reinstated in his 1522 third complete edition. One of...

Music

Music   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
11,793 words

...the Fathers, specifically Augustine. The Pauline texts indicated the character, if not the form, of ideal worship and the role of music in it, justifying heartfelt singing to build up the church. He found further support for that “gift of God” in Augustine's Confessiones (book X, 33), which testified to music's powerful effect on the emotions but which also warned against attending to its melodic beauty at the expense of the sacred texts. For that reason and acknowledging his own experience of the emotional force of psalms in worship, Calvin insisted on a...

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