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Tomislav

Tomislav  

10th-C. prince of Croatia.According to D. Farlati (Illyricum sacrum [Venice 1751] 3:84), Tomislav reigned 20 years, until ca.940; F. Šišić (Povijest Hrvata [Zagreb 1925] 401f) prefers the dates ...
non-liturgical Jewish poetry

non-liturgical Jewish poetry  

Secular Hebrew poetry in the MA was primarily a product of Judaeo-Arabic culture.1. Emergence (10th century)2. Golden age (10th–13th centuries)3. Spain, Provence, and Italy1. Emergence (10th ...
Sophia

Sophia   Reference library

Nancy Patterson Ševčenko

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
138 words

...place) is depicted in the Menologion of Basil II (p.43). The vita by Symeon Metaphrastes is illustrated either with portraits of the mother and her daughters or with the execution scene. BHG 1637x–1639. M. Girardi , Le fonti scritturistiche delle prime recensiones greche della passio di S. Sofia e loro influsso sulla redazione metafrastica, VetChr 20 (1983) 47–76. M. van Esbroeck , Le saint comme symbole, in Byz. Saint 129–38. G. de Tervarent , Contribution à l'iconographie de sainte Sophie et de ses trois filles , AB 68 (1950) 419–23. Nancy...

Lakapenos, George

Lakapenos, George   Reference library

Alice-Mary Talbot

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
162 words

...Constantinople under Andronikos II . About 20 of his letters survive, accompanied by epimerisms and addressed to Andronikos and John Zarides , Michael Gabras , and the physician John Aktouarios . This collection was preserved in a number of MSS because it was used for instructional purposes. He also prepared a selection of 264 of the letters of Libanios , and wrote grammatical notes and commentary on books I and II of the Iliad and on the Encheiridion of Epictetus . ed. Georgii Lacapeni Epistulae X priores cum epimerismis editae , ed. S....

Tomislav

Tomislav   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
284 words

...title of anthypatos . In any case the peace treaty with Bulgaria was signed, with the help of Pope John X , before Symeon 's death. After Tomislav died the role of Croatia declined, and Serbia under Časlav assumed the leading role in the area. Goldstein ( infra ), who has critically reconsidered the scanty data about Tomislav's reign, has tried to show that there is no reason to call Tomislav the first king of Croatia and that the word rex in John X's epistle was not an official title but only a polite expression. Zlatarski , Ist. 1.2:477–79. R....

Leo the Deacon

Leo the Deacon   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
375 words

...women, even Theophano , are pushed to the background. ed. Historiae libri X , ed. C.B. Hase (Bonn 1828). Germ. tr. F. Loretto , Nikephoros Phokas “Der bleiche Tod der Sarazenen” und Johannes Tzimiskes (Graz-Vienna-Cologne 1961). I. Sykoutres , Leontos tou Diakonou anekdoton enkomion eis Basileion ton B' , EEBS 10 (1933) 425–34. Hunger , Lit. 1:367–71. N. Panagiotakes , Leon ho Diakonos (Athens 1965). A. Kazhdan , Iz istorii vizantijskoj chronografii X v. 2 , VizVrem 20 (1961) 106–28. Alexander...

Two Swords, Doctrine of the

Two Swords, Doctrine of the   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
237 words

...Clairvaux radically remodelled the ‘two swords’ doctrine by claiming, in his De Consideratione , that both the material and the secular sword were in the hands of the *papacy . Patrick Stephen Healy H.-X. Arquillière , ‘ Origines de la théorie des deux glaives ’, SGSG 1 (1947), 501–21. H. Hoffmann , ‘ Die beiden Schwerter im hohen Mittelalter ’, DAEM 20 (1964), 78–114. I. S. Robinson , ‘ Church and Papacy ’, The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought c.350-c.1450 , ed. J. H. Burns (1988),...

Flodoard

Flodoard (c.893–966)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
233 words

...steps – its Roman origins, the episcopate of St Remigius ( 533 †) and the archepiscopate of the prestigious Hincmar ( 845–882 ). H. Platelle , “ Flodoard ”, DHGE , 17, 1971, 501-503. P. C. Jacobsen , Flodoard von Reims , Leiden, 1978. M. Sot , Un historien et son église au X e siècle: Flodoard de Reims, Paris, 1993. Michel...

Michael IV Autoreianos

Michael IV Autoreianos   Reference library

Alice-Mary Talbot

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
204 words

...of Constantinople (from 20 March 1208 ); died Nicaea 26 Aug. 1214 . Educated in both the Christian and classical tradition, Michael was a member of the literary circle of Eustathios of Thessalonike , In Constantinople he held the post of megas sakellarios . In the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade he was chosen patriarch by Theodore I Laskaris , who wished to establish the ecumenical patriarchate in exile in Nicaea to bolster his own imperial claims. The patriarchate had been vacant for two years since the death of John X Kamateros ( 1206 ), who had...

De Re Militari

De Re Militari   Reference library

Eric McGeer

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
224 words

...the De velitatione (ca. 975 ); although similar in style and reliance on firsthand experience, the two texts reveal interesting contrasts in military terminology and conditions between the empire's eastern and western frontiers. ed. Incerti scriptoris byzantini saeculi X. liber de re militari , ed. R. Vári (Leipzig 1901). Dennis , Military Treatises 241–335, with Eng. tr. Dagron-Mihăescu , Guérilla 155–60, 171–75, 248–54, 272–74. Eric...

Line and Contour

Line and Contour   Reference library

Anthony Cutler

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
250 words

...a manner that was characteristically Byz. V.N. Lazarev , Les procédés de la stylisation linéaire dans la peinture byzantine des X–XII siècles et leurs sources, 25 Congrès International des Orientalistes [ = Doklad na XXV Meždunarodnom kongresse vostokovedov] (Moscow 1960) 1–18. F. Angiolini Martinelli , Linea e ritmo nelle figure umane ed animali sugli argenti dell'Ermitage di Leningrado dei secoli V–VII , CorsiRav 20 (1973) 19–47. Anthony...

pre-Romanesque Art

pre-Romanesque Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
470 words

... and Mozarabic art, though certain authors admit the latter two into the “pre-Romanesque arts” (see X. Barral). According to whether we are looking for a simple genealogy of the plastic arts of the Romanesque or for an exhaustive view of all that existed before the year 1000 , we will consider part or all of the great monuments and artistic creations from before that date. The more thorough archaeological researches of the last quarter of the 20th c. have put the stress on a synthetic approach to artistic events. Thus, it appears that the fundamental...

Doukas

Doukas   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan and Anthony Cutler

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
562 words
Illustration(s):
1

... (the Crimea). Again it is unknown whether Constantine X Doukas , who ascended the imperial throne in 1059 , and his son Michael VII Doukas were related to the elder Doukai as affirmed by Psellos and Nicholas Kallikles ; Nikephoros Bryennios even went so far as to assert that their ancestors served Constantine I the Great. A 12th-C. historian (Zon. 3:675f) wrote, on the other hand, that the old lineage died out after the unsuccessful revolt of Constantine Doukas in 913 , and Constantine X was a descendant only through the female line. The 11th-C....

epigraphy: Slavic alphabets, palaeography, epigraphy

epigraphy: Slavic alphabets, palaeography, epigraphy   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
503 words

...and *Rus’ (10th century). Michael S. Flier P. Cubberly , ‘Alphabets and Transliteration’, in The Slavonic Languages , ed. B. Comrie and G. Corbett (1993), 20–59. S. Franklin , Writing, Society, and Culture in Early Rus, c.950–1300 (2002), 83–119. E. Karskii , Slavianskaia kirillovskaia paleografiia (1928). A. Medyntseva , Gramotnost’ v Drevnei Rusi: Po pamiatnikam epigrafiki X—pervoi poloviny XIII veka ...

Mutanabbī, al-

Mutanabbī, al-   Reference library

Ahmad M. H. Shboul

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
284 words

...ʿUkbarī's Commentary, ed. M. Saqqa et al., 4 vols. (Cairo 1936; rp. 1971). Fr. tr. of extracts in Vasiliev , Byz. Arabes 2.2:304–48. M. Canard , Mutanabbi et la guerre byzantinoarabe, in Al Mutanabbi (Beirut 1936) 1–16. R. Blachère , Un poète arabe du IVe siècle de l'Hégire (X e siècle de J.-C.): Abou ṭ-Ṭayyib al-Motanabbî (Paris 1935). Sezgin , GAS 2:484–97. Ahmad M. H....

Exkoussatos

Exkoussatos   Reference library

Mark C. Bartusis

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
276 words

...or because some or all of the exkoussatos 's state obligations were granted to a private individual or corporation. In later texts, the terms exkousatoi (MM 5:260.20, a. 1342 ), enkousatoi (the Chronicle of Morea ), and the Latin incosati (derived therefrom) designated privileged individuals, probably exempt from taxes and military service. A. Kazhdan , Ekskussija i ekskussaty v Vizantii X—XII vv. , VizOč (1961) 187–91. Lemerle , Agr. Hist. 175f. Longnon-Topping , Documents 264f. Mark C....

Teacher

Teacher   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan and Robert Browning

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
312 words

...I ( Cod.Just . X 53). Teachers were divided into several categories: grammatistes for primary education and grammatikos for secondary education. Diocletian 's Price Edict established substantially lower fees for teachers in elementary schools than for grammatikoi . With regard to higher education, A. Moffatt (14 CEB 3 [Bucharest 1976 ] 659–61) suggested a distinction between science teachers (of philosophy, mathematics, and medicine) and arts teachers (of grammar, rhetoric, and law), and calculated that, between 330 and 610, 20 percent of all...

Proklos

Proklos   Reference library

Barry Baldwin

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
293 words

...1, vol. 1, pt.1:103–07. Syriac tr., ed. E. Lucchesi in Antiquité païenne et chrétienne , ed. E. Lucchesi , H.D. Saffrey (Geneva 1984) 187–98. Tome —ed. Schwartz , ACO , Tome 4, vol. 2:187–95. lit . F.J. Leroy , L'homilétique de Proclus de Constantinople (Vatican 1967). F.X. Bauer , Proklos von Konstantinopel (Munich 1919). Richard , Opera minora 2, no.52:303–31. Barry...

Praecepta Militaria

Praecepta Militaria   Reference library

Alexander Kazhdan and Eric McGeer

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
301 words

...The text concludes with brief remarks on camps , spies, and the army's religious observances. ed. Strategika imperatora Nikifora, ed. Ju.A. Kulakovskij , ZapANIst-fıl 8.9 (St. Petersburg 1908) 1–58. H. Mihăescu , Pour une nouvelle édition du traité Praecepta militaria du X e siècle, RSBS 2 (1982) 315–22. Dagron-Mihăescu , Guérilla 153f. Alexander Kazhdan , Eric...

Uzes

Uzes   Reference library

Omeljan Pritsak

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
275 words

...Byz. identified the Uzes as Scythians (Skylitzes Continuatus) or Huns (Anna Komnene); Tzetzes ( Hist. 8.773), following an old tradition, placed the Uzes with the Huns in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea. O. Pritsak , Studies in Medieval Eurasian History (London 1981), pts. VI, X, XIX. P. Golden , The Migrations of the Oǧuz , ArchOtt 4 (1972) 45–84. T. Nagrodzka-Majchrzyk , Czarni kłobucy (Warsaw 1985). Omeljan...

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