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Mathematics

Mathematics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...solving of linear equations, and the use of reciprocals. The most awkward equation tackled in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, in problem no. 31, is (1 + 2/3 + 1/2 + 1/7) x = 33, the solution of which is equivalent to evaluating 33 × 42 ÷ 97. To lessen the burden of a long string of fractions, the scribe arranged to deal with the smaller ones separately. He found that the coefficient of x in the equation, when multiplied by 14 1/4, fell just short of 33, so he expressed that shortfall as the sum of six unit fractions. The Egyptians obtained reciprocals by...

Opening of the Mouth

Opening of the Mouth   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Current Version:
2005

...quarter of the goldsmiths (or possibly the similarly written quarry of Hatnub). The Palermo stone and similar historical notations use the formula [ god X ] mst wpt-r m ḥwt-nbw , “the fashioning (literally, the birth) and opening of the mouth of (a statue of) god X in the goldsmiths’ quarter/Hatnub.” Examples of this formula prior to the fourth dynasty use only the form [ god X ] mst , “the fashioning of god X,” which suggests that the opening of the mouths of statues was introduced only in the fourth dynasty. The captions of the Metjen scenes mention that the...

Ptolemaic Period

Ptolemaic Period   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Current Version:
2005

...below). He died on 28 June 116. Ptolemy IX Soter II and Ptolemy X Alexander I (together, r. 116–81 bce ), were sons of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III. In the fall of 116 there was a short tripartite rule shared by Cleopatra II, Cleopatra III, and Ptolemy IX , followed (after the death of the elder Cleopatra) by the joint rule of Cleopatra III and Ptolemy IX (116–107). The queen mother had absolute governing power and appears in administration records above the name of the king. Ptolemy X became strategos of Cyprus, where he proclaimed himself king in...

Historiography

Historiography   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Current Version:
2005

...dynasty required that the sequence of years from the original eighteenth dynasty agreements down to the time of the dispute had to be unbroken, thus, although no direct mention of Akhenaten and his immediate Amarna successors would be tolerated, a terminological subterfuge—“Year X of that Criminal of Akhetaten,” for instance—allowed for a precise reckoning of the intervening years. In the case of Queen Hatshepsut, no such device was needed, since her twenty-one-year reign, no longer recognized as legitimate in later times, fell entirely within the...

Deformity

Deformity   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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2005

...of Akhenaten; he conjectured that they might have shared genes for it, but the relationship is by no means certain. The endocrinologist Charles Edmonds has suggested (Nunn 1996) Klinefelter's syndrome for Akhenaten, a chromosomal abnormality with a doubling of the female X strand alongside the male Y chromosome (XXY, instead of the normal XY). Marfqu's syndrome has also been suggested. The alternative view is that it was an artistic convention, exaggerating certain features of the actually normal body of the king. As Joyce Filer ( 1995 , p. 36)...

Ceramics

Ceramics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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2005

...more analyses being developed. Some vessels can be dated by the carbon-14 analysis of organic inclusions in low-fired pottery or by thermoluminescence. Provenience can be established through compositional studies that rely on physical (petrographic), mineralogical (X-ray diffraction), and chemical (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, instrumental neutron-activation analysis, optical-emission spectroscopy, atomic-absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy) analyses. Pot function can be examined through residue analysis,...

Technology and Engineering

Technology and Engineering   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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2005

...lack of other such hammered pieces is difficult to explain. Craddock and Lang ( 1993 ), two British Museum metallurgists, dismissed this analysis primarily because El Gayer and Jones had reported the presence of gold on the outer layer; their own electron microscope scanning and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic examination of both the bit examined by El Gayer and Jones and the larger fragment from which it came did not detect any traces of gold. They concluded that although the fragment exhibited a form of primitive metalworking, it was unnecessary to suppose...

Twenty-fifth Dynasty

Twenty-fifth Dynasty   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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2005

...directly in Palestine thereafter. In internal matters, Shabtaqa's highest known dateline at present is Year 3 in a Nile flood text on Karnak quay in Thebes; a supposed “Year 10” (Leclant, Lexikon der Ägyptologie , 5:515, 516 [n.1]), is a misunderstanding of Meek's cipher “Year x ,” meaning “year [ unknown/lost ].” In terms of monuments, it is often stated that Shabtaqa left almost no monuments, as compared to Shabaqa, but this is a groundless exaggeration. Like Shabaqa, Shabtaqa worked at Memphis (blocks from buildings, statue, possibly at the Serapeum); he...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
22,183 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for shrines and temples. These statuettes, usually no more than 20 or 30 centimeters (6 to 10 inches) tall, were mostly single human or animal figures. Among the few groups are Isis with her little son Horus on her lap, and mother cats, sacred to the goddess Bastet, with their kittens. Since bronze, as well as other precious substances, was controlled by the royal palace, the statuettes are inscribed with the opening line of the traditional offering formula, “A favor which the king gives to [X] so that [the deity] might grant every good thing.” Many of the...

Magic

Magic   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Current Version:
2005

...Ram. VI); incantations for protective amulets (P. Ram. VII); exorcisms of afflicting ghosts (P. Ram. C); a dramatic ritual text concerning the cult of Osiris (P. Ram B); an archaic funerary liturgy (P. Ram. E); as well as spells against headache (P. Ram VIII), serpents (P. Ram IX-X) and for general protection (P. Ram XVI-XVII). The further inclusion of literary texts (P. Ram. I, II, A, and D) suggested to Gardiner that “the tomb-owner combined with the sterner purposes of his profession the function of a local story-teller and entertainer” ( The Ramesseum...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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2005

...supported the development of sanctuaries for the goddess Isis . Enormous efforts were undertaken by the kings of both the twenty-sixth and the thirtieth dynasty to fortify Egyptian temples and towns in the North against the Persians. Brick enclosure walls, 15 to 20 meters (45 to 65 feet) thick and 20 meters (65 feet) high, surrounded almost all the Delta sites and even some sanctuaries, such as the temples of Amun-Re, Mut , and Khons at Thebes. Nevertheless, none could resist the Persian siege strategies of 525 bce or 343 bce . Ptolemaic Period After...

New Kingdom

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The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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2005

...by H. Guksch et al., pp. 363–386. Mainz, 1998. Plates 20–21, Beilage 3a, are the latest publication of the Elephantine Stela of Sethnakht. Wente, Edward F. Late Ramesside Letters . Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, 33. Chicago, 1967. A translation of the texts published by Černý (1939). Tomb and Temple Robberies Goelet, Ogden, Jr. A New ‘Robbery’ Papyrus: Rochester MAG 51.346.1 . Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 82 (1996), 107–127, pl. IX–X. A new papyrus to add to the documents in Peet's...

Tombs

Tombs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
16,225 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Early Dynastic Period . Dynasty “0”  Ka Abydos B 7–9, 1–2 First dynasty  Narmer Abydos B 17–18   Aha Abydos B 10–15–19   Djer Abydos O (326); fort A (269)  Djet Abydos Z (174); fort B (154)   Merneith Abydos Y (41); fort C (?)  Den Abydos T (121); fort C (?) (80)   Enedjib Abydos X (63); fort D (?)  Semsem Abydos U (69); fort D (?)  Ka'a Abydos Q (26); fort at Deir Sitt Damiana Second dynasty  Hotepsekhemwy Saqqara, near Unas  Ranebi Saqqara?  Ninuter Saqqara   Peribsen Abydos P; “Middle Fort”  Khasekemwy Abydos V; fort at Shunet el-Zebib Some ephemeral...

Grammar

Grammar   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

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Current Version:
2005

... Semiconsonantal glides: /j/ /w/ • Sonorants and sibilants: h, w, s, m, n, l (in the Egyptological tradition rendered as r ), r (traditionally rendered ʒ ) • Plosive and fricative obstruents in ternary opposition: • “voiceless”: p, t, z (/ts/), t (/c/), š (/ç/), k, ẖ (/x/) • “emphatic”: f, d (/ṭ/), ḏ /č̣/, q (also written ḳ ), ḥ • “voiced”: j (traditionally ἰ or y ), b, d (traditionally ʿ!), g, ḫ (/γ/) Although the traditional transliteration signs of these phonemes are of little denotative value (and moreover differ among anglophone,...

Lateran Council of 313

Lateran Council of 313   Reference library

David Gwynn

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

...Council of 313 Summoned by Bishop Miltiades of Rome in October 313 at Constantine I ’s request to hear Donatist accusations against Bishop Caecilian of Carthage ( Eusebius , HE X, 5, 18–20). Miltiades and fifteen Italian bishops decided in Caecilian’s favour, but Donatist appeals led Constantine to summon the Council of Arles in 314 . David Gwynn Hefele and Leclercq, I/2, 272–4. Barnes , CE ,...

monopolies

monopolies   Reference library

Alyssa Bandow

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

...over the production and sale of various products, most notably salt , arms , purple dye , and silk ( CTh X, 20). The production of salt was controlled primarily by the state, although some private individuals were licensed and taxed for its sale (e.g. CTh XI, 20, 3; XIV, 5, 1). The manufacture of arms was monopolized by the state for reasons of imperial security, compelling armourers to operate within hereditary guild structures ( CTh X, 22). While the purchase of raw silk had long been restricted to government employees, governmentally mandated...

comitatus

comitatus ((barbarian))   Reference library

Andreas Rau

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

...if crude, banquets. Scholarship of the 19th and early 20th centuries considered relations of this type characteristic of all Germanic barbarian aristocracies , as late as Beowulf and the Battle of Maldon of August 991. Although the existence of such lord–retainer relations is evident from both written and archaeological evidence, the characteristics of the comitatus as described by Tacitus cannot be assumed to have been universal among ancient Germanic peoples. Andreas Rau RGA 2 s.v. Gefolgschaft, X (1998), 533–55 ( Landolt, Timpe , Steuer ). S....

purple

purple   Reference library

Linda Hall

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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2018

... mentions twelve qualities of purple textile , ranging in price from 10,000 denarii for red wool to 150,000 denarii for purple silk (Hall, 229–36). Use of purple was restricted because it signified imperial power ( Ammianus , XIV, 7, 20; XV, 16; XVI, 8, 3–8; XVII, 11, 1; XX, 5, 3; Reinhold, 64–7; CTh X, 21, 3; X, 20, 18; XV, 7, 11). This applied to the purple granite called porphyry as well as to purple cloth. The imperial dye-works at Tyre produced the finest purple textile dye from the marine mollusc called the murex . The right to perform ...

Crispus

Crispus (300–326))   Reference library

Oliver Nicholson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

...Praetorio , and won victories over the Franks , probably in 319, which a panegyric by Nazarius celebrated ( PanLat IV (X), 17, 1–2 and 36, 3–37, 4). His wife Helena had a child in 322. His naval victory at the Dardanelles in 324 was essential to Constantine’s defeat of the Emperor Licinius . In 326, Constantine tried him and had him executed at Pola of Venetia et Histria (Aurelius Victor 41, 11; cf. Ammianus , XIV, 11, 20); the circumstances are obscure. Crispus has been identified as the boy shown on the Great Cameo of Constantine and Fausta ...

Frumentius

Frumentius   Reference library

David Phillipson

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

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Current Version:
2018

...First Bishop of Aksum . Of Syrian extraction, Frumentius came to Aksum as a youth, probably c. 320–30. Rufinus of Aquileia ( HE X, 9–11) recorded that Frumentius entered the service of the Aksumite king and continued to serve his successor Ezana (whose mother served as a regent for him during his minority). Frumentius associated with a group of Christians at Aksum and, when the young King Ezana assumed full authority, went to Alexandria to seek the patriarch ’s appointment of a bishop for the Aksumite Christians. The Patriarch ...

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