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cohortēs urbānae

cohortēs urbānae   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
156 words

...cohorts, each commanded by a tribune and six centurions, numbered X–XII in continuation of the sequence in the praetorian guard ; under the Flavians there were four cohorts in Rome. Single ‘city’ cohorts (so named because they were originally withdrawn from Rome) are found at Puteoli , Ostia , and Carthage , presumably protecting the shipment of corn to Rome, and at Lugdunum , where there was an important mint. Each cohort contained 500 men. They were recruited from Italians, served for 20 years, were paid half the rate of praetorians. Normally the...

Alphabet and Writing

Alphabet and Writing   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,482 words

...x glottal stop aleph A α a alpha A b x beth B β b beta (not used) B g x gimel Γ γ g k (Etruscan) gamma , C C d x daleth Δ δ d delta (not used) D h x he E ε e epsilon E w x waw (F Ϝ w, v digamma) F z x zayin Z ζ ts, z zeta Z <hunderdot> x “strong h” heth Η η ah or ay eta H <tunderdot> x teth Θ θ aspirated t theta   y x yod Ι ι i iota I k x kaph Κ κ k kappa K l x lamed ^ Λ l lambda L m x mem Μ μ m mu M n x nun Ν ν n nu N s x samekh Ξ ξ ks (east) xi   <ayn> x voiced pharyngeal fricative ayin Ο ο o omicron (not used) O p x pe Π π p pi P <sunderdot> x...

Gallus, Quintus Ogulnius (RE 5)

Gallus, Quintus Ogulnius (RE 5) (269 bc)   Reference library

Piero Treves and Tim J. Cornell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
221 words

...11–12); in 269 , when Q. Ogulnius was consul, this group appeared on the reverse of Rome's earliest silver coinage ( Crawford , RRC no. 20). In 292 , after a plague , Q. Ogulnius led a delegation to bring the serpent of Asclepius from Epidaurus to Rome, and in 273 he was one of three Roman ambassadors to the court of Ptolemy (1) II . K.-J. Hölkeskamp , Rh. Mus . 1988, 51–67; S. P. Oakley , Comm. Livy VI-X , 4 (2005), 83–7. Piero Treves / Tim J....

Vulci

Vulci   Reference library

David William Robertson Ridgway

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
224 words

...culture ), several thousands of which had been emptied by the mid-19th cent.: Vulci was the principal importer to Etruria of Attic black- and red-figure vases ( see pottery, greek ). Haynes , Etr. civ. passim ; S. Gsell , Fouilles dans la nécropole de Vulci (1891); Atti X Convegno Studi Etruschi 1975 (1977); G. Riccioni in IBR 241 ff. and Vasi greci di Vulci: necropoli dell'Osteria, scavi Ferraguti-Mengarelli 1929–31 (2003); N. J. Spivey , The Micali Painter and his Followers (1987); F. Buranelli , Gli scavi a Vulci della Società Vincenzo...

Idas and Lynceus

Idas and Lynceus   Reference library

Alan H. Griffiths

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
277 words

...expedition (in which Apollonius (1) presents Idas as a hot-tempered braggart; see argonauts ) and the Calydonian boar-hunt ( see meleager (1) ). Lynceus' contribution to the partnership is his ‘lynx-eyed’, even X-ray (Apollod. 3. 10. 3) vision. C. Schwanzar , LIMC 1. 1 (1981): ‘Apharetidae’; H. Fränkel , MH 1960, 1–20; Gantz , EGM 324–7. Alan H....

Hippo Regius

Hippo Regius   Reference library

Brian Herbert Warmington and Roger J. A. Wilson

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
288 words

...besieged by the Vandals . The forum, market, baths, theatre, and a large church, together with a domestic quarter, are the principal excavated monuments. PECS 394–6; Grove I, 562–3; E. Marec , Monuments chrétiens d'Hippone, ville épiscopale de saint Augustin (1958); X. Delestre , Hippone (2007). Brian Herbert Warmington / Roger J. A....

Jerusalem

Jerusalem   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
506 words

...of unified resistance. The destruction of the city and the Temple by Titus in 70 , after a five‐month siege, was a turning‐point in its history. The walls were razed, leaving only the three towers. The priestly class all but disappeared. After the revolt, the camp of legion X Fretensis was located at Jerusalem. After the Bar Kokhba revolt ( 132–135 ), Hadrian refounded the city as a military colony, Aelia Capitolina, but there is little sign of large‐scale reconstruction. Christian sources claim that Jews were barred. In any event, Jewish religious...

Seres

Seres   Reference library

Nicholas Purcell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
600 words

...coral had their place in the eastbound trade, but at no point is it necessary to model Asian exchange-networks as parts of a mercantile economy. Contacts were opportunistic, and political and social factors far outweighed economic ones in determining the modalities of exchange. X. Liu , Ancient India and Ancient China: Trade and Religious Exchanges A.D. 1–600 (1988); A. Dihle , Antike und Orient: Gesammelte Aufsätze , ed. V. Pöschl and H. Petersmann (1984), 201–15; J.-M. Poinsotte , Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire de l'École française de Rome 91...

Priene

Priene   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,695 words

...and terrace walls respectively. The sanctuary was dominated by its large courtyard rather than by the small temple at its west end. To the north was a small altar; to the south two small priestess houses; beside the temple a remarkably large (5.9 feet square x 6.6 feet deep [1.8 meters square x 2 meters deep]) sacrificial pit built with ashlar blocks 1.6 feet (1/2 meter) thick. The temple consisted of a two-columned porch with unfluted Doric columns and three doors leading to the bothros, the cella proper, and a small adjoining room at its northwest...

Plato

Plato (1) (c.429–347 bc)(of Athens)   Reference library

Julia Annas

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,893 words

...for a logos becomes more stringent, and prior conditions are set on what would be an adequate answer. One who has knowledge of X must give an answer as to what X is which is in some way explanatory of the way particular things and kinds of thing are X. The answer is said to provide a ‘form’ which is itself in some way X, indeed X in a way which (unlike the Xness of other things) precludes it from ever being the opposite of X in any way. Many complex issues arise over these ‘forms’, hotly disputed by scholars. The text gives suggestive but incomplete...

Jerusalem

Jerusalem   Reference library

Rajak Tessa

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
843 words

...unified resistance. The destruction of the city and the Temple by Titus in 70 , after a five-month siege, were a major turning-point in its history. The walls were razed, leaving only the three towers. The priestly class all but disappeared. After the revolt, the camp of Legio X Fretensis ( see legion ) was located at Jerusalem. Before the Bar Kokhba Revolt, Hadrian refounded the city as a military colony, Aelia Capitolina, whose layout can still be traced. Christian sources claim that Jews were barred. In any event, Jewish religious life perforce...

Historiography, Latin

Historiography, Latin   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,504 words

... 78 (1983): 150–161. Kraus, Christina S. , and Anthony J. Woodman . Latin Historians. Greece & Rome: New Surveys in the Classics, no . 27. New York: Published for the Classical Association by Oxford University Press, 1997. Oakley, Stephen P. A Commentary on Livy Books VI–X . Vol. 1, Introduction and Book VI, pp. 3–108. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Roller, Matthew B . “ Exemplarity in Roman Culture: The Cases of Horatius Cocles and Cloelia. ” Classical Philology 99, no. 1 (2004), pp. 1–56. Sumner, G. V. “ The Truth about...

historiography, Roman

historiography, Roman   Reference library

Christopher Brendan Reginald Pelling

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,055 words

...a team led by T. Cornell and C. Smith . The early writers also figure in FGrH nos. 809–15. E. Badian , in T. A. Dorey (ed.), Latin Historians (1966); E. Rawson , Intellectual Life in the late Roman Republic (1985), ch. 15; and S. P. Oakley , Comm. on Livy Books VI–X 1 1–108, provide the best surveys of the republican tradition, though Badian's comments on style require revision in the light of J. Briscoe , ALLP , 53–72. See also B. W. Frier , Libri Annales Pontificum Maximorum: The Origins of the Annalistic Tradition (1979); T. P....

Jesus

Jesus (c.4 bce–30)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,319 words
Illustration(s):
1

...particularly demonstrate. But apart from the Gospels, little information is provided in the other New Testament writings about Jesus’ own life and teaching. The New Testament contains four Gospels—or, more precisely, four writings traditionally known as “the Gospel according to X.” The “gospel” format is the same in each case: an account of Jesus’ mission and teaching, in a fairly loose narrative form, beginning with his baptism by John the Baptist and climaxing in his trial, torture, and crucifixion, and with accounts of his tomb being found empty and his...

provincia/province

provincia/province   Reference library

Ernst Badian

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,623 words

...provided the land connection with Spain, was not organized as a province until after the wars with the Cimbri and their allies had shown the danger this presented; Cyrene , bequeathed by its king (96), was not properly organized until the 60s; and the bequest of Egypt by Ptolemy X (87) was refused by Sulla . But some annexation became necessary, or was regarded as such: Macedonia and Africa (the territory of Carthage ; see africa, roman ) in 146, Asia after the war with Aristonicus (129), Transalpine Gaul after 100. Unwillingness to create more praetors...

Livy (RE 9)

Livy (RE 9)   Reference library

John Briscoe

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,129 words

...di Livio tra medioevo e umanesimo (1981), and Studi Petrarcheschi (1986), 1–115; L. D. Reynolds , in Texts and Transmission 205–14; M. D. Reeve , RFIC 1986, 129–72; 1987, 129–64, 405–40, and Studies in Latin Literature and its Influence (1989), 97–112; Oakley , Comm. vi-x . 1. 152–327. Other works P. G. Walsh , Livy, his Historical Aims and Methods (1961); H. Tränkle , Livius und Polybios (1977); T. J. Luce , Livy, the Composition of his History (1977); Syme , RP 1. 400–54; A. J. Woodman , Rhetoric in Classical Historiography (1988), 128...

provincia/province

provincia/province   Reference library

Ernst Badian

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,730 words

...the land connection with Spain, was not organized as a province until after the wars with the Cimbri and their allies had shown the danger this presented; Cyrene , bequeathed by its king ( 96 ), was not properly organized until the 60s; and the bequest of Egypt by Ptolemy (1) X Alexander I ( 87 ) was refused by Sulla . But some annexation became necessary, or was regarded as such: Macedonia and Africa (the territory of Carthage ; see africa, roman ) in 146 , Asia after the war with Aristonicus ( 129 ), Transalpine Gaul after 100. Unwillingness to...

prōvincia/province

prōvincia/province   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,412 words

...), which provided the land connection with Spain, was not organized as a province until after the wars with the Cimbri and their allies ( see marius ) had shown the danger this presented; Cyrene was not properly organized until the 60s; and the bequest of Egypt by Ptolemy X ( 87 ) was refused by Sulla . But some annexation became necessary, or was regarded as such: Macedonia and Africa (the territory of Carthage ; see africa, roman ) in 146 , Asia ( 129 ), Transalpine Gaul after 100 . Unwillingness to create more praetors meant that the...

metre, Greek

metre, Greek   Reference library

L. P. E. Parker

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6,157 words

...recurring patterns, especially to ‘link’ phrases of the form –∪∪–∪∪– (hemiepes). POxy. 2619 ( Iliu Persis ) includes short iambo-trochaic phrases (… ×–∪–×…), and in the last verse of the strophe, the place of the biceps in linking hemiepe is taken by anceps: –∪∪–∪∪–∪̲–∪∪–∪∪––∪–. PLille. 76 a b c ( Thebaid ) shows ∪,–, and ∪∪ in the same ‘link’ positions, but ∪ never corresponds with ∪∪ within the same strophic pair. POxy. 2360 consists exclusively of –∪∪–∪∪– and –∪– linked by ancipitia. This can be identified with the fully-developed...

legion

legion   Reference library

John Brian Campbell

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,393 words

...War, 161, are pure speculation. Legio X Fretensis (named after the fretum or channel between Italy and Sicily, suggesting participation in naval battles): raised by Octavian, 41 / 0? bc ; served in Macedonia after 30 bc , and by ad 14 at the latest was in Syria; in 17 based at Cyrrhus, later at Zeugma . Sent in 66 to fight in the Jewish War, took part in the sieges of Jerusalem and Masada , thereafter stationed at Jerusalem; moved to Aela on the Red Sea in the second half of 3rd cent. Legio X Gemina (‘Twin’): raised in 59 bc or...

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