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Arad

Arad   Reference library

Zeאev Herzog

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,675 words
Illustration(s):
1

...symbolizing the presence of the deity in the temple. Two carefully hewn limestone incense altars were found lying on their sides on the middle stair of stratum X, below the floor of stratum IX of the main hall. The altars differ in size: the base of the smaller is 8.7 by 7.9 inches (22 by 20 cm) and it is 15.7 inches (40 cm) high, while the larger is 12.2 by 11.4 inches (31 by 29 cm) at base and 20 inches (51 cm) high. Both altars had a top part separated from the base by a groove. A shallow depression was cut in the top surface, with remnants of organic...

Ashdod

Ashdod   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,957 words
Illustration(s):
2

...that went out of use in stratum XIa. Iron II city walls were revealed in Ashdod both in Area G, stratum X, and in Area M, strata X–VII. Important finds from stratum XI include a large assemblage of richly decorated Philistine bichrome pottery, a complete Aegean-style seated female figurine (Dothan, 1971 , fig. 91:1, nicknamed “Ashdoda”), a complete pomegranate-shaped vessel, and several seals carved in a linear style recalling Cypriot seals. Stratum X marks a clear break in the material culture of Tel Ashdod as red-slipped pottery almost totally replaces...

Aelia Capitolina

Aelia Capitolina   Reference library

Robert Schick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,342 words
Illustration(s):
1

...not an arch, is attested by a portion of a monumental Latin inscription that records the Legio X Fretensis, II Traiana, and XII Fulminata. Jerome ( Chron. 2:201 ) reported that in his day in the late fourth century the picture of a boar, the emblem of the Legio X Fretensis, was placed over the city gate leading to Bethlehem. That indicates that the gate, whether as a freestanding monumental arch or as a city gate, was constructed before the transfer of the Legio X Fretensis to Aqaba in the course of Diocletian’s (r. 284–305 c.e. ) army reforms. One might...

Ekron

Ekron   Reference library

David Ben-Shlomo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,508 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a jar filled with charred figs, ended in a violent destruction. The Late Bronze Age is not represented in the lower city, indicating that during this period Ekron was relatively small and unfortified. Strata VII to IV represent the Iron I in fields I, III, IV, and X. Remains in fields X and III in the lower city indicate a fortification wall during the Iron Age I and highlight Ekron’s large size during this period of time. A fragment of a gate was also excavated in field III strata V and IV (Iron Age IB). Remains of early Iron-I structures, including...

Fortifications in the Bronze and Iron Age

Fortifications in the Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Kyle H. Keimer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,828 words

...the attacking army had sufficient provisions). Even more diverse than the style of wall in the Iron II is the style of gate, which ranged from a simple breach in the wall (Mezudat Hatira) to structures with two (Beit Mirsim B3), four (Khirbet Qeiyafa, Ashdod X, Beersheba V), or six (Hazor X, Megiddo VA–IVB, Gezer VIII) chambers to grandiose complexes with inner and outer gates (Dan III, Bethsaida V). At the same time, some sites did not even have a proper gate but were apparently entered via ladder (Kadesh Barnea III, Horbat Rosh Zayit IIa). City gates...

Timnah, Tel Batash

Timnah, Tel Batash   Reference library

Amihai Mazar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
4,576 words

...following occupation phase (stratum X) the citadel went out of use. On the basis of pottery typology, the end of this Middle-Bronze city was in the mid-sixteenth century b.c.e. At the same time the large Middle-Bronze city at nearby Tel Miqne came to an end and the fortified Middle-Bronze city at Gezer was destroyed. The circumstances of this crisis and its reasons are unclear; they may have occurred in the aftermath of the events related to the expulsion of the Hyksos dynasty from Egypt. Late Bronze Age I–IIA. Strata X–VI dated to the Late Bronze Age are...

Hazor

Hazor   Reference library

Sharon Zuckerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,538 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Research 314 (1999): 55–70. Finkelstein, Israel . “Hazor XII–XI with an Addendum on Ben-Tor’s Dating of Hazor X­–VII.” Tel-Aviv 27 (2000): 231–247. Horowitz, Wayne , and Oshima Takayoshi . Cuneiform in Canaan: Cuneiform Sources from the Land of Israel in Ancient Times . Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 2006. Kitchen, Kenneth A. “An Egyptian Inscribed Fragment from Late Bronze Hazor.” Israel Exploration Journal 53 (2003): 20–28. Marom, Nimrod , and Sharon Zuckerman . “Applying On-Site Analysis of Faunal Assemblages from Domestic Contexts: A...

Masada

Masada   Reference library

Jürgen Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,329 words
Illustration(s):
2

...who tried to save their lives and protect their goods as long as possible under the leadership of El ʿ azar ben-Yacir and Shimcon bar-Giora (Josephus, B.J. 2.653). The Roman Garrison between 73/74 and 111 c.e. In 73 c.e. , however, the Roman governor Flavius Silva led Legio X Fretensis and numerous auxiliaries, a force of up to 13,000 men, from Jerusalem to Masada with the clear order to wipe out the last rebel stronghold. Excavations on the fortress itself by Yadin, in Camp F, and on the siege works have revealed a stunning array of Roman military...

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman

Jerusalem, Hellenistic and Roman   Reference library

Jürgen K. Zangenberg

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
9,575 words
Illustration(s):
2

... Ant. 15.423). But the project was so huge that much work dragged on until 28 c.e. ( John 2:20 ), and it was not before 64 c.e. that the Roman governor Albinus declared the Temple finished and ordered construction to stop, creating a major social crisis (Josephus, Ant. 20.219). Herod Agrippa II (r. 48–ca. 93 c.e. ) had to repair and embellish the streets of Jerusalem to keep 18,000 workers active who were previously employed at the Temple (Josephus, Ant. 20.220–221). Numismatic finds and the almost perfect state of many pavers on the south–north road...

Dan

Dan   Reference library

David Ilan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,469 words
Illustration(s):
2

...houses built on inner rampart, tombs under houses, scarab seals X Middle Bronze II 17th century b.c.e. “Cenotaph” tomb XI Middle Bronze II 18th century b.c.e. Mud-brick gate house with three intact arches, earthen rampart, monochrome painted crème ware pottery XII Middle Bronze I 20th–18th centuries b.c.e. Simple dwellings, wheel-made pottery including Levantine painted ware, infant and adult burials and tombs under houses, first bronze objects XIII Intermediate Bronze 23d–20th centuries b.c.e. Sparse settlement remains, pottery XIV Early Bronze...

Gath

Gath   Reference library

Aren Maeir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,993 words
Illustration(s):
1

...A3 destruction level, remains of an early Iron Age–IIA building which apparently served as a temple were revealed. This included two well-made round stone pillar bases and a related rectangular structure, quite reminiscent of the plan of the Philistine temple at Tel Qasile, stratum X. Although the finds from this structure were not well preserved, various cult-related finds were discovered in association with this structure. Just to the north of the northern wall of the temple, remains of a small area in which evidence of bronze and iron metallurgical production...

Megiddo

Megiddo   Reference library

David Ussishkin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
7,828 words
Illustration(s):
2

...altar Early Bronze III–Middle Bronze I 2800–1950 XV “Megaron” temples Middle Bronze I 2250–1950 XIV Poor settlement, shaft tombs Middle Bronze IIA 1950–1700 XIII–XII Egypt’s Middle Kingdom, renewed urban settlement, settlement on lower mound, ramparts Middle Bronze IIB 1700–1600 XI–X Egypt’s Second Intermediate period Late Bronze I 1550–1400 IX Egypt’s New Kingdom ca. 1475 Campaign of Thutmose III Late Bronze IIA 1400–1300 VIII El-Amarna period Late Bronze IIB–III 1300–1130 VIIB–VIIA Large Canaanite city ca. 1175 Battle between Ramses III and the Sea Peoples End...

Jericho

Jericho   Reference library

Lorenzo Nigro

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,676 words

...of ע Ain es-Sultan a basilica was erected, of which only a capital and some sparse remains are preserved. Two synagogues also arose in the oasis: the Synagogue of Shahwan, in the Tell el-Jurn area, and the Synagogue of Khirbet Na ע aran. Islamic period (636–1516 c.e. , Sultan X) and Ottoman period (1516–1918 c.e. , Sultan XI). Remains of Islamic occupation of Tell es-Sultan are represented by ceramic fragments dating from the Umayyad period (Abbasid and Mamluk pottery was also found). At the northern edge of the oasis, on the northern banks of Wadi...

Art, Bronze and Iron Age

Art, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Izak Cornelius

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,451 words
Illustration(s):
3

...which might mean that they are goddesses. An example showing faces was found at Beith Aula (eleventh century) near Hebron. A fragment from Jerusalem (tenth–ninth centuries) has been linked with the motif of the defeat of Humbaba. The “dancers stand” comes from the temple of Stratum X (eleventh century) at Tell Qasile. Another stand is the “musicians’ stand” from Ashdod Stratum (tenth century), with a bowl mounted on top and five figures with large heads and eyes with musical instruments (cymbals, pipes, lyre, hand-drum). Figurines of women with their hands on...

Religion, Judaism

Religion, Judaism   Reference library

Katharina Galor, Yonatan Adler, and Eric M. Meyers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
20,228 words
Illustration(s):
3

...namely in 23/22 b.c.e. In Antiquities (15.380) he began in the eighteenth year, namely in 19/18 b.c.e. Completion of the entire Temple Mount complex, however, took much longer. According to John 2:20 , the construction lasted 46 years, which would mean the project was finished in 27/28 c.e. , long after Herod's death in 4 b.c.e. In Antiquities (20.219) the construction lasted more than 80 years, which would have been shortly before the First Jewish Revolt broke out in 66 c.e. Construction methods and materials. According to Josephus, there were...

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