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St Pius X

St Pius X  

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(1835–1914), Pope from 1903. From the beginning it was clear that he wished to be a religious rather than a political Pope. When the French government effected the separation of Church and State in ...
Gregory X

Gregory X  

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(1210–76), Pope from 1271. He recognized Rudolf of Habsburg as Emperor, inducing Alfonso of Castile to resign his claims to the German throne. At the Second Council of Lyons (1274) the Greek Emp. ...
frequency of Communion

frequency of Communion  

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On a possible interpretation of Acts 2: 46 the apostolic community communicated daily; from other passages in the NT and 2nd-cent. writers it seems that members of the local Churches all communicated ...
Exsurge Domine

Exsurge Domine  

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The bull issued by Leo X in 1520 threatening to excommunicate M. Luther. Luther broke with the Papacy by publicly burning the bull.
Biblical Commission

Biblical Commission  

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A committee of cardinals was instituted by Leo XIII in 1902 to further Biblical studies and to safeguard the authority of Scripture against the attacks of exaggerated criticism. In answer to ...
Peter Julian Eymard

Peter Julian Eymard  

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Founder (1811–68).Born at La Mure d'Isère in the Grenoble diocese, Peter worked at his father's profession of a cutler until he entered the local seminary and was ordained priest in 1834. With his ...
Innocent X

Innocent X  

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(15 Sept. 1644–1 Jan. 1655)Born in Rome on 7 May 1574 into a long-established Roman noble family, Giambattista Pamphili studied at the Roman College with help from his uncle Cardinal Girolamo ...
Maria Bertilla Boscardin

Maria Bertilla Boscardin  

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(1888–1922),nun. Born of a poor family at Brendola (Vicenza), she attended primary school intermittently largely because her father was jealous, violent, and not infrequently drunk. She was ...
Nicholas III

Nicholas III  

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(25 Nov. 1277–22 Aug. 1280)After John XXI's unexpected death the seven cardinals took six months to choose a successor. The most obvious candidate was Giovanni Gaetano, born in Rome 1210/20 as son of ...
Honorius IV

Honorius IV  

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(2 Apr. 1285–3 Apr. 1287)To exclude outside pressures the cardinals at Perugia acted swiftly on Martin IV's death in that city, and four days later unanimously elected Giacomo Savelli, cardinal ...
Claude Fleury

Claude Fleury  

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(1640–1723), ecclesiastical historian. From 1689 he was one of the tutors to Louis XIV's grandsons, and after his death (1715) he was chosen as confessor to the young Louis XV. His chief work is his ...
Henry of Finland

Henry of Finland  

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(d. 1156),bishop and martyr; patron saint of Finland. English by birth, he was consecrated bishop of Upssala (Sweden) by Nicholas Breakspear, papal legate to Scandinavia and later Pope Adrian IV, at ...
Liturgical Movement

Liturgical Movement  

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A 20th-cent. movement in W. Churches to revitalize liturgical worship and give the congregation a more active part in it. It began among RC religious communities (often dated from an ...
John XXI

John XXI  

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(d. 1277), Pope from 1276. Peter of Spain was born in Lisbon, probably not later than c.1205. In 1273 he was elected Abp. of Braga and created Cardinal Bishop of Frascati; in this capacity he ...
Martin IV

Martin IV  

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(c.1210–85), Pope from 1281. Simon de Brie was elected through the influence of Charles of Anjou, on whom he remained dependent throughout his pontificate. With a view to assisting the planned attack ...
Clement IX

Clement IX  

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(20 June 1667–9Dec. 1669)Born at Pistoia on 28 Jan. 1600, of a noble family which derived its wealth from sheep-farming, Giulio Rospigliosi studied liberal arts at Rome with the Jesuits, and then ...
Edward the Martyr

Edward the Martyr  

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(c.962–79),king of England. He was the son of King Edgar and his first wife Æthelflaed: his succession to the throne had been disputed, but he was chosen by the witan in 975 under the preponderant ...
Pius VIII

Pius VIII  

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(31 Mar. 1829–30 Nov. 1830)Born at Cingoli, near Ancona, on 20 Nov. 1761, of noble parentage, Francesco Saverio Castiglione was educated at Osimo, later studying canon law at Bologna and Rome. Having ...
St Marcellinus

St Marcellinus  

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(30 June 296–?304; d. 25 Oct. 304)While nothing is known of his background, much the greater part of his reign fell in a period when the church enjoyed external peace. His sole recorded action in ...
Exclusion, Right of

Exclusion, Right of   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
87 words

...name a particular candidate whom they desired to exclude from being elected Pope. The claim goes back to the 16th cent., and the last occasion on which it was exercised was by the Austrians in 1903 (against Cardinal Rampolla). The right was finally annulled by Pius X in Commissum Nobis ( 20 Jan. 1904 ) and Vacante Sede Apostolica ( 25 Dec. 1904...

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