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alliterative verse

alliterative verse   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
194 words

...e.g. XXX Nāp nihtscūa, norþan snīwde ( The Seafarer , 31: The shade of night grew dark, it snowed from the north.) In Middle English, the alliterative rules were much less strict, although the alliteration was often very dense: ‘I have lyved in londe’, quod I, ‘My name is Longe Wille’. ( Piers Plowman B XV. 152) Nothing after Middle English could categorically be said to be ‘alliterative verse’, despite its recurrent use as a device throughout English poetry, except perhaps for the rather self‐conscious revival of the form in the 20th century by...

alliterative verse

alliterative verse   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
204 words

...unrhymed, and made up of two distinct half‐lines each of which contained two stressed syllables. The alliteration was always on the first stress of the second half‐line, which alliterated with either, or both, of the stresses in the first half‐line; e.g. X X X Nāp nihtscūa, norþan snīwde ( The Seafarer , 31: The shade of night grew dark, it snowed from the north.) In Middle English, even among the poets of the Revival, the alliterative rules were much less strict, although the alliteration was often very dense: ‘I have...

Aquinas, St Thomas

Aquinas, St Thomas (1224–1274)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
152 words

...into Latin under his aegis. He was later called ‘Doctor Angelicus’. His followers (Thomists) have been an active school in contemporary philosophy, particularly in France. He is a fundamental influence on Dante 's Divina commedia (see Paradiso , X–XIII). See B. Davies , Aquinas (2002) ; Summa , trans. in 20 vols (1911–25), by Fathers of the Dominican...

Modernism

Modernism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
217 words

...modernist movement, represented the opposite response, embracing the modern world and applauding the aesthetic innovations which developing technology allowed. [ See also Gruppo 63 .] The term modernismo is also used of the Catholic reform movement of the early 20th c., condemned by Pius X . [ Derek Duncan...

Boyd, William

Boyd, William (1952–)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
280 words

...in late 20th‐century London of a Romany‐born loss adjuster with sleeping difficulties. Any Human Heart ( 2002 ) provides a history of the 20th century through the journals of Logan Mountstuart while the complex and fast‐moving plot of Restless ( 2006 ) focuses, through the narratives of a mother and daughter, on the role of spies and betrayal in the Second World War. Boyd has written television screenplays, two of which, Good and Bad at Games and Dutch Girls , were published together as School Ties ( 1985 ). The Destiny of Nathalie ‘X’ ( 1995 )...

Cummings, E[dward] E[stlin]

Cummings, E[dward] E[stlin] (1894–1962)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Literature (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Literature
Length:
380 words

...division of words, all of which became integral to the ideas and rhythms of his relatively brief lyrics. These he continued to write with subtlety of technique and sensitivity of feeling and to publish in ViVa ( 1931 ), No Thanks ( 1935 ), I/20 ( 1936 ), Collected Poems ( 1938 ), 50 Poems ( 1940 ), I x I ( 1944 ), Xαîρϵ ( 1950 ), Poems: 1923–1954 ( 1954 ), 95 Poems ( 1958 ), and the posthumously collected 73 Poems ( 1963 ). His other works are him ( 1927 ), an expressionist drama in verse and prose, with kaleidoscopic scenes dashing from...

Burgess, Anthony

Burgess, Anthony (1917–93)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Literature
Length:
405 words

...( Inside Mr Enderby , 1963 , under the pseudonym ‘Joseph Kell’; Enderby Outside , 1968 ; The Clockwork Testament , 1974 ; and Enderby's Dark Lady , 1984 ), (which resurrected F. X. Enderby by popular request). Earthly Powers ( 1980 ), a long, ambitious novel narrated by an octogenarian writer, combines real and fictitious characters to produce a panorama of the 20th century. Among many other novels exhibiting Burgess's characteristic mix of the earthy and abstruse, bodily gusto, and relish for the recondite are The Kingdom of the Wicked ( 1985 ),...

Burgess, Anthony

Burgess, Anthony (1917–93)   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature
Length:
322 words

...inspired poet ( Inside Mr Enderby , 1963 , under the pseudonym ‘Joseph Kell’; Enderby Outside , 1968 ; The Clockwork Testament , 1974 ; and Enderby's Dark Lady , 1984 ) (which resurrected F. X. Enderby by popular request). Earthly Powers ( 1980 ) is a long, ambitious novel which combines real and fictitious characters to produce a panorama of the 20th century; The Kingdom of the Wicked ( 1985 ) is about early Christianity, and Any Old Iron ( 1989 ), a debunking of myths about military glory and racial purity. Burgess also published novels about...

Restoration, The

Restoration, The   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
398 words

... monarchy was restored to the throne in the person of Louis XVIII . This is usually called the first Restoration, since it was interrupted by Napoleon's escape from Elba and return to Paris ( 20 March 1815 ); the second Restoration began with his abdication ( 22 June 1815 ) and Louis's return to Paris. After Louis's death ( 16 September 1824 ), his brother Charles X succeeded to the throne. The reign of the Bourbons ended with the Revolution of July 1830 , provoked by the king's reactionary policies and disregard for representative government. Charles...

Catholicism in 20th‐Century France

Catholicism in 20th‐Century France   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
706 words

...as seen for instance in writers such as Bourget and Huysmans . However, in the most prominent Catholic novelists of the 20th c., Bernanos and Mauriac, spiritual conviction was accompanied by deep scepticism concerning the Church's exercise of temporal power and by a degree of anticlericalism. Frequently regarded as ‘Catholic novelists’, they distanced themselves from the misleading idea of the ‘Catholic novel’. In the late 20th c., with the waning of triumphalism and the challenges of pluralism, anti‐ideological writers such as Jean Sulivan , who take...

Naturalismus

Naturalismus   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to German Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
592 words

... ( 1885 ) by A. Holz contains the beginnings of proletarian poetry more in its choice of subjects than in its manner. With Die Kunst . Ihr Wesen und ihre Gesetze ( 1890–2 ), Holz produced the principal theoretical tract, which includes the lapidary formulation ‘Kunst = Natur - x’, amplified at the end of the essay in the following: ‘Die Kunst hat die Tendenz, wieder die Natur zu sein. Sie wird sie nach Maßgabe ihrer jedweiligen Reproduktionsbedingungen und deren Handhabung.’ This sentence was simplified by Holz in 1899 : ‘Die Kunst hat die Tendenz, die...

Latin Satire and Epigram

Latin Satire and Epigram   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
4,447 words

...of modern scholarship, Gifford's translation is accompanied by excellent notes, and provides perhaps the best overall entrée in English to the full range of Juvenalian satire. Of more recent versions, the blank-verse rendering of Sat . x by Robert Lowell deserves special mention as the only translation of Juvenal by a major 20th-c. poet. The version's muted decorum produces a coherent English poem which, however, conveys little of Juvenal's verbal exuberance. Of recent translations by classicists, the most widely read are probably those by Peter Green and ...

Colonization

Colonization   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,225 words

...fore among those based overseas, members of the French‐educated indigenous élites became increasingly prominent during and after decolonization. The literatures of the French territories overseas are discussed in entries for specific regions or countries. [ Alec Hargreaves ] See X. Yacono , Histoire de la colonisation française (1969); M. A. Loutfi , Littérature et colonialisme: l'expansion coloniale vue dans la littérature romanesque française, 1871–1914 (1971); J. Meyer , et al. , Histoire de la France coloniale , 2 vols....

Decolonization

Decolonization   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Literature in French

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,269 words

...is la francophonie . The continuing use of the French language by political and cultural élites in ex‐colonial territories has been the seedbed from which a rapidly expanding body of literature in French has emerged outside France during the second half of the 20th c. . Alec Hargreaves See X. Yacono , Les Étapes de la décolonisation française (1971); P. C. Sorum , Intellectuals and Decolonization in France (1977); A. Ruscio , La Décolonisation tragique: une histoire de la décolonisation française, 1945–1962 ...

Impossible Crime

Impossible Crime   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Crime and Mystery Writing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
882 words

...an unwilling suspect, a strong man can be strangled by a child, an immovable block can be used as a blunt instrument. Joseph Commings , with his sleuth Senator Banner, faced a vampire killer confined to a mausoleum for 150 years, a scarecrow able to use a shotgun, and, in “The X Street Murders” ( Mystery Digest , Mar./Apr. 1962 ), a killer using a pistol and then having it produced seconds later from a sealed envelope in an adjoining room. Edward D. Hoch makes a complete circus disappear, presents a fatal bullet would with no entry, strangles a skydiver...

Wills

Wills   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Crime and Mystery Writing

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
809 words

..., 25 Oct. 1924 ) concerns “the queerest will that has ever been filed in the State of Kansas.” Later writers showed even more ingenuity ; for example, in The Eye of Osiris ( 1911 ; The Vanishing Man ), R. Austin Freeman 's Dr. John Thorndyke solves with the aid of X rays a puzzle based upon a will that contains curious provisions about where the testator should be buried. Ingenious use of the will as a plot device was made by many Golden Age writers, including Agatha Christie , whose “Motive v. Opportunity” ( Miss Marple , 1985 ) concerns a...

Letter-Writing and Epistolari

Letter-Writing and Epistolari   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Italian Literature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,266 words

...Florentine humanist chancellors—Salutati, Leonardo Bruni , and Poggio Bracciolini —looked rather to Cicero for a political eloquence which they saw as more relevant to their civic concerns. Later Iacopo Sadoleto and Pietro Bembo , appointed segretari ai brevi by Pope Leo X in 1513 , secured the dominance of Ciceronianism in the correspondence of the papal curia , and set the European standard for Latin epistolary style. Latin letter-writing also developed a narrative vein: Boccaccio 's tale of Griselda ( Decameron 10.10) was translated into...

Latin History

Latin History   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
3,548 words

...excerpts from Livy. A complete translation of Caesar's Gallic War appeared in 1565 ; then in the 20 years between 1591 and 1610 there were major translations of the four other authors ( Sallust , Livy , Tacitus , and Suetonius ) whose works are discussed in the following pages. Of the five authors in question, two—Livy and Suetonius—received such definitive translations in the 17th c. that no further translations are discussed here before the 20th c.; for Caesar, Sallust, and Tacitus a small number of 18th- and 19th-c. translations are discussed....

Ukrainian

Ukrainian   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
1,633 words

...Translations of other Ukrainian 19th-c. and 20th-c. classics include Ivan Franko's poems and novels, Lesia Ukraiinka's poems and plays, Marko Vovchok's Marusia ( 1871 ) translated in the 1880s by C. W. Cyr from the French version co-authored by P.-J. Stahl , and novels by Mykhailo Kotsiubyns'kyi . The best Ukrainian 20th-c. prose is represented in translation by, among others, Volodymyr Vynnychenko , Mykola Khvyliovyi , Valerian Pidmohyl'nyi , Ivan Bahrianyi , and Valerii Shevchuk . Among the best 20th-c. poets, those better represented in...

Medieval Spanish Literature

Medieval Spanish Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Literature
Length:
3,093 words

...of English-speakers owe their familiarity with the hero to the Charlton Heston film. Alan Deyermond Alfonso X   Las siete partidas , tr. Samuel Parsons Scott , Chicago, 1931. Amadís de Gaula   The Treasurie of Amadis of Fraunce , tr. Thomas Paynell , London, 1567 · The Ancient, Famous and Honourable History of Amadis de Gaule , tr. Anthony Munday , London, 1590–1619 [abr. John Shirley 1702]· Amadis of Gaul , tr. Robert Southey , London, 1803 [two 20th-c. adaptations]. Ballads   Ancient Spanish Ballads , Historical and Romantic, tr. John Gibson Lockhart ,...

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