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Exclusion, Right of

Exclusion, Right of   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
87 words

...name a particular candidate whom they desired to exclude from being elected Pope. The claim goes back to the 16th cent., and the last occasion on which it was exercised was by the Austrians in 1903 (against Cardinal Rampolla). The right was finally annulled by Pius X in Commissum Nobis ( 20 Jan. 1904 ) and Vacante Sede Apostolica ( 25 Dec. 1904...

Leo X

Leo X (1475–1521)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
415 words

...Rodocanachi , Le Pontificat de Léon X (1931). F. S. Nitti , Leone X e la sua politica (1892). G. B. Picotti , La giovinezza di Leone X [1928]. G. Truc , Léon X et son siècle (1941). G.-R. Tewes and M. Rohlmann (eds.), Der Medici-Papst Leo X. und Frankreich (2002). C. L. Mee , Jun., White Robe, Black Pope (1973 [popular]). H. M. Vaughan , The Medici Popes (1908), 1–284. Pastor, 7 and 8 (1908), with bibl. G. Mollat in DTC 9 (pt. 1; 1926), cols. 329–32, s.v. ‘ Léon X ’.; G. Simon in TRE 20 (1990), 744–8, s.v.; M. Pellegrini in...

Negeb

Negeb   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
136 words

.... The Negeb is a mountainous desert south of Judah between the Arabah and the Mediterranean Sea ( Map 1:V–X6–7 ). Its name means “dryness” but can also be synonymous with “the south” ( Gen. 28.14 ). Abraham and Isaac sojourned there ( Gen. 12.9 ; 13.1–3 ; 20.1 ; 24.62 ; 26.17–23 ). The Amalekites ( Num 13.29 ), Jerahmeelites, Kenites (or Kenizzites), Cherethites , and Calebites ( 1 Sam. 27.10 ; 30.14 ) dwelt there. After the conquest of Canaan , it was allotted to Simeon ( Josh. 19.1–9 ; 1 Chron. 4.28–33 ), but eventually incorporated...

Pius X, St

Pius X, St (1835–1914)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
687 words

... C. Maurras (ibid. [1953]), and G. Romanato (Milan, 1992). An Eng. tr. of Card. R. Merry del Val 's Memories of Pope Pius X was pub. London, 1939. P. Zovatto , Ricerche su S. Pio X (Pubblicazioni della Facoltà di Magistero dell'Università di Trieste, 3rd ser. 20; 1988). [W.] O. Chadwick , A History of the Popes 1830–1914 (Oxford, 1998), esp. 332–405. É. Amann in DTC 12 (pt. 2; 1935), cols. 1716–40, s.v. ‘ Pie X ’; C. Ledré and R. Fastiggi in NCE (2nd edn.), 11 (2003), 387–92, s.v. ...

Numbers

Numbers   Reference library

Reinhard Achenbach

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
6,608 words
Illustration(s):
2

...against Moses and Aaron X 17:2–11 [Heb. 17:17–26 ] The ordeal of the staffs: Aaron’s blossoming rod X 17:12–13 [Heb. 17:27–28 ]; 18 Instructions on the Aaronite priestly privileges, the reward for the Levites and the tithes X 19 Instructions on the ritual of the red heifer and on purification of the community from contamination by corpses X The Way through the Wilderness II 20:1aa The wandering to the wilderness of Zin X 20:1ab,b The death of Miriam at Kadesh X 20:2–13 The sin of Moses and Aaron at the waters of Meribah X 20:14–21 The Edomites refuse...

Modernism

Modernism   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Religion
Length:
131 words

...especially in the Roman Catholic Church at the beginning of the 20th cent., to reformulate doctrine in the light of contemporary philosophical and scientific research. Exegetes, the most distinguished of whom was Alfred Loisy , argued that the scriptures had to be treated simply as historical documents, and studied without reference to tradition or to the magisterium of the Church. Modernism was condemned by the Holy Office in the decree Lamentabili of July 1907 , and by Pius X's encyclical Pascendi the following Sept. The ensuing purge in...

Asher

Asher   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
150 words

... In Genesis 30.13 , the name Asher is associated with the Hebrew word for blessing, but many scholars associate the name's origin with the goddess Asherah . According to Joshua 19.24–31 , the tribe of Asher settled in northwest Canaan ( Map 3: X2–3 ). Biblical sources praise Asher's fertile land ( Gen. 49.20 ; Deut. 33.24–25 ). The authors of Judges claim that Asher failed to occupy all of its territory ( Judg. 1.31–32 ). Solomon reorganized Asher's territory into an administrative district ( 1 Kings 4.16 ) and later ceded twenty Galilean cities ( 1...

Benjamin

Benjamin   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
130 words

...understood geographically, in the sense of “southern”; the same name is used of a different group in the Mari texts. Though the smallest of the tribes ( Map 3:X5 ), it had an importance disproportionate to its size ( see Ps. 68.27 ). The narratives in Joshua 3–9 are all set in Benjaminite territory, and members of the tribe were reputated to be fierce warriors ( Gen. 49.27 ; Judg. 5.14 ; 19–20 ; 1 Chron. 8.40 ; 12.1–2 ). Notable Benjaminites include Ehud the judge ; Saul , the first king of Israel; Jeremiah the prophet; and Paul . See also ...

Zebulun

Zebulun   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
146 words

.... Son of Jacob and Leah and one of the twelve tribes of Israel ( Gen 30.19–20 ). The tribe settled in the region of Galilee between Asher and Naphtali to the north and Manasseh and Issachar to the south ( Map 3:X3 ). Zebulun figures prominently in the wars of Judges ( 4.6 , 10 ; 5.14 , 18 ; 6.35 ). According to the Chronicler, Zebulun continues to play a major role during David 's reign ( 1 Chron. 12.34 ). Members of this tribe seem to have survived the Assyrian conquest ( Isa. 9.1 ; 2 Chron. 30.6 , 10–11 ). King Josiah 's wife,...

Pius X

Pius X   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (5 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
450 words

...War frustrated and he died on 20 August 1914 with a reputation for miracles, simplicity, and poverty, having written in his will ‘I was born poor, I have lived poor, and I wish to die poor’. Certain aspects of wealth and ceremony in the Vatican were profoundly distasteful to him. There was a popular outcry in favour of his canonization immediately he died; but he was in fact canonized by Pius XII in 1954 . Feast: formerly 3 September , now 21 August . R. Merry del Val , Memories of Pope Pius X (1939); R. Bazin, Pie X (1928; Eng. tr. also 1928); H....

Ephraim

Ephraim   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
253 words

...claimed descent from the respective sons of Joseph ( see Tribes of Israel ). The tribe of Ephraim came to inhabit the central hill country of Canaan north of Jerusalem, the so‐called hill country of Ephraim ( Judg. 7.24 ; 17.8 ; etc.; Map 3:X4 ), from which the tribe probably received its name. The ancient cities of Bethel, Shechem , and Shiloh are all to be found in its territory. Its importance is highlighted by the use of the name of Ephraim as an alternate literary designation for the whole northern kingdom of Israel by the mid‐eighth century BCE...

Armenian Version of NT

Armenian Version of NT   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
241 words

...the Lucianic text ) and proceeded to bring the then existing Armenian text into conformity. In one Armenian MS the concluding 12 verses of Mk. (16: 9–20) are attributed to ‘the presbyter Ariston’ ( see Aristion ). Editio princeps of whole Armenian Bible, Amsterdam, 1666; first crit. edn. by J. Zohrab , Venice, 1805, photographically repr., Delmar, NY, 1984, with introd. (in Eng.) by C. [E.] Cox , pp. x–xxvi. NT pub. separately Amsterdam, 1668 ; ed. J. Zohrab , Venice, 1789 . Book of Rev. ed. F. C. Conybeare (Text and Translation Society, 3, 1907...

Rose of Lima, St

Rose of Lima, St (1586–1617)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
207 words

...canonized saint of America. She lived all her life in Lima, Peru, and from childhood practised the severest austerities. In her 20th year she joined the Third Order of St Dominic . A vow of virginity and her strictness of life incurred persecution from her family and friends, and she also suffered intensely from interior desolation. Long sickness and early death crowned her self-sought mortifications. She was canonized by Clement X in 1671 and is the Patroness of S. America and the Philippines . Feast day, 23 Aug. AASS , Aug. 5 (1741), 892–1029, incl....

Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban

Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban (1617–82)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
215 words

... D. A. Íñiguez , Murillo (3 vols., Madrid, 1981). J. Brown , Murillo and his Drawings (Princeton, NJ [1976]). Bartolomé Esteban Murillo 1617–1682 . Catalogue of an Exhibition at the Museo del Prado, Madrid, 1983, and the Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1983 (1982). X. Brooke and P. Cherry , Murillo: Scenes of Childhood [2001]. S. L. Stratton-Pruitt and others, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (1617–1682): Paintings from American Collections . Catalogue of Exhibitions … at Fort Worth … and Los Angeles (New York and Fort Worth, Tex. [2002]). C. B...

Communion, frequency of

Communion, frequency of   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
409 words

...monthly communion in all cathedral churches; the Wesleys communicated two or three times a week; the leaders of the Oxford Movement urged frequent communion; and in 1905 Pope Pius X strongly pressed it upon RCs (Decree of 20 Dec. 1905 ). The relaxation in the rules about the Eucharistic fast (q.v.) was directed to the same end, and in the second half of the 20th cent. communion was allowed for a second time on the same day in some circumstances, e.g. at a Nuptial Mass . At present weekly communion is fairly common among the laity of the RC Church...

Boscardin, Maria Bertilla

Boscardin, Maria Bertilla   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (5 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
319 words

...in 1922 and a serious operation failed to save her. She died on 20 October . A memorial plaque described her as a ‘chosen soul of heroic goodness…an angelic alleviator of human suffering in this place’. Her tomb at Vicenza was the centre of pilgrimage and miracles. She was beatified in 1952 and canonized in 1961 . She resembled Theresa of Lisieux , whose spiritual teaching she followed, in having good judgement, a strong will, and unobtrusive perseverance in humdrum duties. Feast: 20 October . A.A.S. , liii (1961), 278–95; P. G. di S. M. Maddalena, ...

Andrew, St

Andrew, St   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
299 words

...in the Gospels ( Mk. 1: 16–20 , 29, etc .). Though not a member of the inner band of three (Peter, James , and John ), several incidents concerning him are recorded ( Jn. 1: 35–42 , Mt. 4: 18–20 , Jn. 6: 8 f. , Mk. 13: 3 f., etc .). Eusebius ( HE 3. 1. 1) states that he later went to Scythia. The Muratorian Fragment connects him with the writing of St John's Gospel. Acc. to a late and unreliable tradition he was crucified at Patras, in Achaia, in 60. The earliest evidence for the form of his cross taking the shape of an X (as it appears in the Union...

Liturgical Movement

Liturgical Movement   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
323 words

...Movement . A movement aimed at restoring the active participation of the laity in the official worship of the Church. In the RC Church the revival may be traced to P. L. R. Guéranger , but its main impetus came from Pius X 's direction relating to Church music ( 1903 ) and his promotion of frequent Communion. It was fostered by certain Benedictine abbeys. At about the time of the Second World War in France and slightly later in Germany the momentum of the movement spread beyond the monastic centres into the parishes. The attempt to restore the...

Durandus, William

Durandus, William (1230–96)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
404 words

...Durandus, William ( c. 1230–96 ) , Bp. of Mende from 1285 . Born in France, he taught at Modena and possibly at Bologna , where he had studied. He was one of the chief medieval canonists. A legal official of the Roman Curia , he attended Pope Gregory X at the second Council of Lyons ( 1274 ), and prob. helped to draft its decrees. Among canon lawyers his Speculum iudicale was widely influential and led to his being known as ‘the Speculator’; centred on legal procedure, it drew on his judicial and administrative experience. Also much acclaimed...

Eymard, Peter Julian

Eymard, Peter Julian   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Saints (5 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
301 words

...the Eucharist, shared by many in the 19th century, has been completed by 20th century popes and the Second Vatican Council into a deeper perception of the Eucharist as a sacrificial meal in which all those present actively share. But it is no accident that he was canonized during the Second Vatican Council in 1962 : adoration and reverence are needed in every century. Feast: 1 August . Lives by J. M. Lambert (1925), C. de Keyser and F. Trochu (1949); B.L.S . viii, 14–17; Bibl. SS ., x. 840–3; See also F. Lebrun (ed.), Histoire des Catholiques en France...

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