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46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of the literary market. This broadening of the marketplace coincided with a trend across the region toward the professionalization of publishing, which became a separate business from printing and bookselling. 4 The development of the publishing industries in the 20 th century By the early 20 th century, the growing Latin American book market was still dominated by French publishing houses—Garnier, Bouret, Ollendorff, Armand Colin, Hachette, Michaud, and Editorial Franco-Iberoamericana—plus some German (Herder), English ( *Nelson ) and American (Appleton)...

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,966 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...such authors as Hayyim Nahman Bialik ( 1873–1934 ) and Saul Tchernichovski ( 1875–1943 ). The emigration of these authors and many of their colleagues to Palestine in the first decades of the 20 th century signalled the emergence of Palestine as the centre of Hebrew literature. This shift to Palestine was further strengthened by the major political events of the 20 th century, the rise of Communism in Eastern Europe, the mass destruction of European Jews by the Nazis, and the foundation of the State of Israel in 1948 . Modern Israeli authors such as ...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...TNA in LAB/48/123–7. Case files of the Immigration Appellate Authorities are held in the Lord Chancellor's Department record series LCO 42, for 1971–97 . Most of these 875 files are subject to closure periods ranging from 30 to 75 years. Many files contain photographs and original X‐rays. Once the country and place‐name of an ancestor's origins are discovered, one can build a local history of that place. During British rule in India, the Office of the Surveyor‐General and other administrative bodies created numerous maps as well as unpublished histories of...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...( Flos Sanctorum ) in Tamil followed in 1580 and 1586 respectively. All these books were prepared in accordance with instructions issued in 1575 by Alessandro Valignano , who was responsible for all Jesuit missions in Southeast and East Asia between 1573 and 1606 (Wicki, x. 269, 334). He would also play a crucial role in the beginnings of missionary printing in China and Japan. The first publication in an Indian language other than Tamil was printed in Konkani some time before 1561 at the College of St Paul. In a letter from Goa on 1 December 1561...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... ( 1579 ) indicates that it was ‘Printed by Hugh Singleton , dwelling in Creede Lane neere vnto Ludgate at the signe of the gylden Tunne, and are there to be solde.’ Increasingly, however, title-pages came to bear a standard formula, which indicated that a book was printed ‘By X for Y.’ Thus, for example, when Thomas Middleton ’s Micro-cynicon appeared in 1599 , the title-page noted that it had been ‘Imprinted at London by Thomas Creede , for Thomas Bushell ’ and that it was ‘to be sold’ at Bushell’s ‘shop at the North Doore of Paules Church’. Here...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...for their cultural achievements in other areas. Runes are alphabetic, though without taking full advantage of that system (e.g. consonants do not double) ( see 1 ). They seem to be drawn from the Roman alphabet, adapted to a non-Latin language: five ‘unnecessary’ letters (K, Q, X, Y, and Z) are used for phonemes and language clusters that have no Latin equivalent, while one rune has no equal in the Roman alphabet. Runes began in the Romanized centres of northern Germany and spread from there, appearing on high-prestige artefacts to record the owner’s or...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...History , 11 (1980), 265–86 N. Harris , ‘ Sopravvivenze e scomparse delle testimonianze del Morgante di Luigi Pulci ’, Rinascimento , 45 (2005), 179–245 L. Hellinga , ‘The Codex in the Fifteenth Century: Manuscript and Print’, in A Potencie of Life , ed. N. Barker (1993) X. Hermand et al ., ‘Les Politiques éditoriales dans l’Europe des imprimeurs au XV e siècle: un projet de recherches, en cours’, Archives et bibliothèques de Belgique , 87 (2009), 75–82 R. Hirsch , Printing, Selling and Reading 1450–1550 , 2e (1974) ISTC K. Jensen , ‘Printing the...

Medici, Lorenzo de

Medici, Lorenzo de   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
81 words

...Lorenzo de (known as ‘Lorenzo the Magnificent’) ( 1449–92 ) Aged 20 he became joint ruler of Florence with his brother Giuliano. In 1478 the brothers were the targets of a plot organized by the rival Pazzi family and the pope: Giuliano was killed but Lorenzo survived. His main concern was the promotion of his family, and he was rewarded by seeing his second son become Pope Leo X. He was a collector of antiquities and was Michelangelo’s first...

Armstrong, Neil Alden

Armstrong, Neil Alden (1930–2012)   Quick reference

Who's Who in the Twentieth Century

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History
Length:
339 words

...But Armstrong's most memorable moment was at 02.56 GMT on 21 July 1969 . As commander of the Apollo 11 mission, he became the first person to set foot on the moon. He and Edward ‘Buzz’ Aldrin ( 1930–  ) landed their lunar module, Eagle , in the Sea of Tranquillity at 20.17 GMT on 20 July , pronouncing the famous words, ‘That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind’. On the lunar surface they set up a television camera, took samples of lunar dust, deployed scientific instruments, and made a series of observations, providing invaluable...

Armstrong, Neil

Armstrong, Neil (b. 1930)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
525 words

...Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). His test pilot career began at NACA's Lewis research laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio, but he was soon transferred to the NACA High Speed Flight Station at Edwards Air Force Base in California. While at Edwards, Armstrong piloted the X-15 experimental rocket plane. In 1962 , Armstrong was one of the nine-person second astronaut class selected by NASA. His first mission as an astronaut was as Command Pilot of Gemini 8 , with Pilot David R. Scott . Gemini 8 achieved the first docking in space, as Armstrong...

Joliot‐Curie, Irène

Joliot‐Curie, Irène (1897–1956)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
639 words

...experienced experimental teaching by an unusual group of scientists surrounding her parents. She received her baccalaureate from the Collège Sévigné in 1914 and accompanied her mother during World War I as a nurse radiographer assisting the medical corps in running the mobile X‐ray unit in Belgium. At eighteen, she began to train nurses in Paris in the use of the equipment. When the war ended, Irène was made a préparateur in the laboratory of her mother's Radium Institute, where she continued to work in various capacities for the rest of her life. She...

Magellan, Ferdinand

Magellan, Ferdinand (c. 1480–1521)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
1,568 words
Illustration(s):
1

... on October 20 of that year. Faleiro followed. In Seville Magellan was aided by Diogo Barbosa , his wealthy Portuguese host and future father-in-law, along with Juan de Aranda , factor of the Casa de Contratación; Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, bishop of Burgos and vice president of the Council of the Indies; and others at the Spanish court. Though on March 22, 1518 , Magellan signed a contract with Charles I (the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ), his fleet of five ships did not leave Sanlúcar de Barrameda until September 20, 1519 . In the...

Space Program

Space Program   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
7,706 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Encouraged by the flight of the space tourist Dennis Tito aboard Soyuz TM-32 in 2001 , and the then still unclaimed X-Prize—a monetary award given to the first private entity to build and launch a reusable spacecraft into space twice within a two-week period—the Myasishchev Design Bureau (the organization responsible for the design of the Soviet shuttle Buran ), and the American corporation Space Adventures unveiled their entry for the X-Prize competition the following year: the C-21 “Cosmopolis.” “Cosmopolis” is aerially launched from a specially designed...

Navigational Techniques

Navigational Techniques   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
3,738 words

...+23.5°, at the vernal and autumnal equinox 0°, and at the winter solstice −23.5°. This apparent path of the Sun through the sky, or on the celestial sphere, during the year is called the “ecliptic” and had been calculated since classical times. In 1252 , at the order of Alfonso X ( r. 1252–1284 ), king of Léon and Castile, a set of tables was published giving the positions of the Sun, Moon, and planets for every day of the year. The tables were reprinted with minor corrections in 1509 in Regimento do estrolabio e do quadrante , and mariners used them for...

Codes of Law and Laws

Codes of Law and Laws   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
23,748 words
Illustration(s):
4

...In the case of the Spanish provinces, an extensive corpus of legislation largely based on Visigoth, Roman, and canon law was applied during colonial times and, in many instances, mixed with local regulations. The most relevant codes were the Siete Partidas promulgated by Alfonso X El Sabio in 1265 , the Ordenamiento de Alcalá of 1348 , Leyes del Toro of 1505 , Nueva Recopilación de las Leyes de Castilla of 1567 , Recopilación de las Leyes de Indias of 1680 , and Novísima Recopilación de las Leyes de España of 1805 . In the case of the Brazilian...

Africa

Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
17,377 words
Illustration(s):
4

...therefore, the most comprehensive account of Africa to emerge in the sixteenth century was written by a Moor drawing on his own experiences and Arab sources. Born in Granada, educated in Fez, and captured by Christian pirates in 1518 , Leo Africanus was freed by Pope Leo X , who encouraged him to write his Description of Africa . He had crossed the Sahara to reach the Niger and visit Songhai, Gao, the Hausa kingdoms, and Bornu and had gained a great knowledge of Arab geographical learning. Appearing in Italian in 1526 and translated into English in...

scanning electron microscope

scanning electron microscope   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
119 words

...are then scanned to form a magnified image which allows the examination of the structure, relief, and morphology of materials at between 20 × and 50 000 × magnification. In addition to its great magnification, the SEM also has a great depth of field. Most SEMs also have a facility to analyse the X‐rays given off by the target as a result of its bombardment and, as each element in the periodic table produces its own X‐ray spectrum, this can be used to determine the elemental content of the...

Haultin, Pierre

Haultin, Pierre (c.1510×20–1587)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
67 words

...Pierre ( c .1510×20–1587 ) French printer and *punchcutter . He published Protestant Bibles and devotional works at Paris and La Rochelle, and cut *romans heavier, narrower, and with a larger *x-height than those established by *Garamont and others in the 1530s . His *italics and *Greeks follow *Granjon ’s and Garamont ’s. John A. Lane H. Vervliet , ‘ Printing Types of Pierre Haultin ’, Quaerendo , 30 (2000), 87–129,...

Diophantus of Alexandria

Diophantus of Alexandria (Diophantos; c. 200–284 CE)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,107 words

...must be greater than any one singly,” such as, x = a + b + c. Diophantus assumes: a + b = 20, b + c = 30, c + a = 40; he surmises x – 30, x – 40, x20. It follows from his assumptions that x = 3x – 90, so x = 45. Therefore a = 15, b = 5, c = 25. Barring Diophantus’s assumption, this problem has multiple solutions. Other problems involve rational numbers as the sums of squared or cubed numbers; values that simultaneously render two linear expressions into squares or cubes (e.g., for 10x + 9 and 5x + 4, x = 28. This yields 289 whose square root is 17 and...

Malcolm X

Malcolm X (b. 19 May 1925)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
4,037 words
Illustration(s):
2

...during the early 1990s, young African American men began wearing X-caps, and even U.S. President Bill Clinton was sometimes seen jogging in one. In 1992 the filmmaker Spike Lee directed Malcolm X , starring the Oscar-winning actor Denzel Washington as Malcolm. On 20 January 1999 , the U.S. Postal Service issued a Malcolm X postage stamp. [ See also Malcolm X, Memory of ; Muhammad, Elijah ; Nation of Islam ; and Shabazz, Betty .] Bibliography Breitman, George . The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary . New York: Merit, 1967. This...

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