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Calvinist austerity

Calvinist austerity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
46 words

...austerity Sharp, hard-edged late-C20 and early-C21 architecture, esp. associated with The Netherlands, notably Wiel Arets ’s (1955– ), apartment -blocks in Tilburg (1992–4) and KNSM Island, Amsterdam (1990–6). S.Allen & Zwarts ( 1999 ) ; Boc (1999); X.Costa et al . (eds) ( 2002 ) ; ...

Team X (10)

Team X (10)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
77 words

...X (10) Mid-C20 alliance of architects so called because they combined to organize the tenth CIAM conference (1956). Believing CIAM had become unwieldy and vague in its aims, they argued for a revitalization of the International Modern Movement . Members included van Eyck and the Smithsons . AD , xxxii /12 (Dec. 1962), 559–602; R.Ba ( 1966 ) ; Sn & Sn ( 1991 ) ; Sn (ed.) ( 1968 , 1982 ) ; J.T ( 1996...

Duchamp, Marcel

Duchamp, Marcel (1887–1968)   Reference library

Molly Rogers

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
102 words

...Marcel ( 1887–1968 ), French artist and leading figure of the early 20th‐century avant‐garde. An interest in optics informed much of his work, with chronophotography , X‐rays, and other techniques for visualizing the invisible a particular concern. His ready‐mades, common objects elevated to the status of art by virtue of their selection, have a conceptual affinity with photography; some scholars argue that photographs of the ready‐mades, by which they are largely known, are themselves ready‐mades. Significantly, these are reproduced as works by...

Dobson, Frank

Dobson, Frank (1886–1963)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
110 words

...Frank ( 1886–1963 ). English sculptor. In 1920 he exhibited with Wyndham Lewis 's short-lived avant-garde coalition Group X ( 1919–20 ). Briefly influenced by Vorticism he created the backdrop for Edith Sitwell's Façade ( 1922 ) and a streamlined, polished bust of her brother Osbert ( 1923 ; London, Tate). By 1926 he was critically acclaimed but within a decade his reputation was eclipsed by younger sculptors. His nude and semi-draped female figures are related to Maillol and to Picasso 's classical work of 1919–25 . His small late ...

Rossiter, Thomas Pritchard

Rossiter, Thomas Pritchard (1818–71)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
289 words

...X&ved=0ahUKEwjIg8yG6NPTAhVI2SYKHU7yDNQQ6AEILDAB#v=onepage&q=fraunces%20tavern%20museum%20rossiter%20signing%20the%20constitution&f=false Annotated image of Signing the Constitution of the United States http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artist/?id=4152 Biography, images http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection?who=Rossiter%2c+Thomas+Pritchard%24Thomas+Pritchard+Rossiter&pg=1#!?q=%22thomas%20pritchard%20rossiter%22&perPage=20&sortBy=Relevance&sortOrder=asc&offset=0&pageSize=0 Image http://www...

Zucker, Paul

Zucker, Paul (1888–1971)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
144 words

...Square: From the Agora to the Village Green (1959) and numerous contributions on architectural theory in various journals, mostly dealing with aspects of urban space. AAAB , Papers , xii (1977), 53–145; JSAH , ii /3 (Sept. 1942), 6–13, x /3 (Sept. 1951), 8–14; P ( 1982 ) ; Ven ( 1989 ) ; WMfB , iv (1919–20), 83–6; Zucker ( 1959...

Beal, Gifford

Beal, Gifford (1879–1956)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
181 words

...realism, particularly for New England coastal scenes, before again adopting a more impressionist touch. Reynolds Beal was his brother. http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection#!?q=gifford%20beal&sortBy=Relevance&sortOrder=asc&offset=0&perPage=20&pageSize=0 Images including The Albany Boat http://www.phillipscollection.org/search?i=1&tpc_q=gifford+beal&q1=Website&x1=tpc_type Biography, images https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/artist-info.2363.html?artobj_artistId=2363&pageNumber=1 Images ...

Beard, James Henry

Beard, James Henry (1811–93)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
318 words

...portraits, he soon specialized in animals. Some are straightforward portrayals, but most cast furry characters—especially bears—in human roles http://www.anb.org/articles/17/17-00054.html?a=1&n=james%20henry%20beard&ia=-at&ib=-bib&d=10&ss=0&q=1 (subscription) Biography, bibliography http://magart.rochester.edu/CUS.18.WebSitesNew._202?sid=432&x=7457&x=7458 Annotated image of The Night Before the Battle ...

medical photography

medical photography   Reference library

Raymond P. Clark

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
2,743 words

...History soon acknowledged radiography's central role in the development of both medical science and physics, since it was while studying X‐rays that Henri Becquerel ( 1852–1908 ) discovered radioactivity. But beyond the scientific domain, X‐rays formed part of that vast reservoir of collective fantasy that was to nourish both popular culture (comics, pulp fiction, cinema) and the artistic avant‐garde for much of the 20th century. CC Clément Chéroux Kern, S. , The Culture of Time and Space, 1880–1918 (1983). Pallardy, G. and M.‐J. , and Wackenheim, A. ,...

Frost, Arthur Burdett, Jr.

Frost, Arthur Burdett, Jr. (1887–1917)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
241 words

...survives, although some lost paintings are known in black-and-white photographs. https://books.google.com/books?id=bP0vAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA637&lpg=PA637&dq=arthur+frost+jr+artist&source=bl&ots=xuMKkkt9O8&sig=wBZ84JZ3QqIAoX-fQDmupuBtvq8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiPqtr0zvrVAhUq2oMKHQ50CS4Q6AEITjAK#v=onepage&q=arthur%20frost%20jr%20artist&f=false Memorial tribute, including overview of career, by Walter Pach ...

Electrography

Electrography   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
337 words

...and leather. In the mid-1970s xeroradiography (a xerographic process in which an X-ray gun is used to obtain X-ray pictures) and telecopy respectively gave rise to electroradiographic art and fax art. The advent in the 1980s of the digital copier, with its creative programmes, also created new possibilities, and from 1989 the colour laser copier could be connected to a computer or a video camera, thereby increasing the creative potential of electrography. At the end of the 20th century it was one of the most practised technological art forms, with Pol Bury ...

Pine, Robert Edge

Pine, Robert Edge (1730–88)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
187 words

...) demonstrates his technical fluency as well as the graceful ease that marks contemporary British portraiture. http://www.anb.org/articles/17/17-00682.html?a=1&n=robert%20pine&d=10&ss=0&q=1 (subscription) Biography, bibliography http://npg.si.edu/blog/portrait-george-washington-robert-edge-pine Annotated image of George Washington http://collection.thewestmoreland.org/Obj4560?sid=5440&x=113910 Image of Portrait of Charles and John Vaughn http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/artist-info.1788.html Biography, bibliography, image https://www.npg...

Brown, William Mason

Brown, William Mason (1828–98)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
142 words

...son Fred C. Brown painted still lifes in a style similar to his father’s before leaving the profession to become a minister. http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/list.php?m=a&s=tu&aid=519 Images http://www.clevelandart.org/art/1969.20?artist=William+Mason+Brown Image http://collections.currier.org/Obj7060?sid=21497&x=5792889 Image https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/1184 Image ...

Weir, John Ferguson

Weir, John Ferguson (1841–1926)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
406 words

...20weir&d=10&ss=0&q=1 (subscription) Biography, bibliography http://www.the-athenaeum.org/art/list.php?m=a&s=tu&aid=704 Images including The Gun Foundry http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/13175?sortBy=Relevance&ft=%27john+ferguson+weir%27&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=1 Images http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/results/index.cfm?rows=10&q=&page=1&start=0&fq=name:%22Weir%2C%20John%20Ferguson%22 Images http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/elihu-vedder-32003 Image http://accessaddison.andover.edu/Obj4306?sid=141547&x...

scientific examination

scientific examination   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
3,122 words

...and varnishes, have a low absorbency for X-rays, allowing them to pass readily, while pigments based on iron, copper, lead, and zinc have a moderate blocking effect. Pigments containing lead, such as lead white and lead-tin yellow, or mercury, principally vermilion, have a very high absorbency for X-rays and their presence registers as white or as light areas on an X-ray photograph (radiograph). The very widespread use of lead white in easel paintings up to the 20th century is the fortuitous reason for the success of X-radiography of paintings, since its...

Friedman, Arnold

Friedman, Arnold (1874–1946)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
268 words

... Biography, analysis http://accessaddison.andover.edu/Obj3506?sid=17289&x=696958 Image https://www.moma.org/collection/works/79740?locale=en Image https://americanart.si.edu/artist/arnold-friedman-1681 Image http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection#!?q=%22arnold%20friedman%22&offset=0&pageSize=0&sortBy=Relevance&sortOrder=asc&perPage=20 Images http://collection.whitney.org/object/9268 Image ...

Spencer, Niles

Spencer, Niles (1893–1952)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
274 words

...Ferry, Pennsylvania, where he died. http://www.anb.org/articles/17/17-01078.html?a=1&n=niles%20spencer&d=10&ss=0&q=1 (subscription) Biography, bibliography https://www.columbusmuseum.org/embark-collection/pages/Obj1843/?sid=15&x=13944572&port=31597 Image of Buildings http://collection.whitney.org/artist/1260/NilesSpencer Images including The Green Table http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/488615?sortBy=Relevance&ft=niles+spencer&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=2 Images including Erie Underpass https://www.sfmoma.org/artist/Niles_Spencer Image ...

Poor, Henry Varnum

Poor, Henry Varnum (1887–1970)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
407 words

... Images including The Pink Tablecloth http://www.phillipscollection.org/search?i=1&tpc_q=%22henry+varnum+poor%22&q1=Website&x1=tpc_type Biography, images http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection#!?q=%22henry%20varnum%20poor%22&perPage=20&sortBy=Relevance&sortOrder=asc&offset=0&pageSize=0 Images https://collection.cooperhewitt.org/search/collection/?query=%22henry+varnum+poor%22 Images http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artist/?id=3838 Brief biography...

Tait, Arthur Fitzwilliam

Tait, Arthur Fitzwilliam (1819–1905)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of American Art and Artists (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
330 words

...in Yonkers. http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection#!?q=%22arthur%20fitzwilliam%20tait%22&perPage=20&sortBy=Relevance&sortOrder=asc&offset=0&pageSize=0 Images http://museums.fivecolleges.edu/info.php?page=0&v=1&s=&type=ext&t=objects&f=&d=&maker=Tait%2C+Arthur+Fitzwilliam Images http://www.clevelandart.org/art/452.1915?artist=Arthur+Fitzwilliam+Tait Image https://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/1627 Image http://accessaddison.andover.edu/Obj4061?sid=54397&x=1041539 Image http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artist/?id=6523...

Colenbrander, T(heodoor) C(hristiaan) A(driaan)

Colenbrander, T(heodoor) C(hristiaan) A(driaan) (31 Oct 1841)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
505 words

...cat., Arnhem, Gemeentemus., 1986) R. Mills : Kleurnuancen. T. C. A. Colenbrander als tapijtontwerper , Jong Holland , x (1994), pp. 26–31 R. Mills : Motif and Variations: A Study of Dutch Art Nouveau Ceramic and Carpet Designs by T. A. C. Colenbrander , Stud. Dec. A. , iv/1 (Fall–Winter 1996–7), pp. 85–117 R. Mills : Axes of Construction: An Analysis of Dutch Art Nouveau Carpet Designs by T. A. C. Colenbrander , Stud. Dec. A. , x/2 (Spring–Summer 2003), pp....

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