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46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...of the literary market. This broadening of the marketplace coincided with a trend across the region toward the professionalization of publishing, which became a separate business from printing and bookselling. 4 The development of the publishing industries in the 20 th century By the early 20 th century, the growing Latin American book market was still dominated by French publishing houses—Garnier, Bouret, Ollendorff, Armand Colin, Hachette, Michaud, and Editorial Franco-Iberoamericana—plus some German (Herder), English ( *Nelson ) and American (Appleton)...

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books

8 The Transmission of Jewish Knowledge through MSS and Printed Books   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,966 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...such authors as Hayyim Nahman Bialik ( 1873–1934 ) and Saul Tchernichovski ( 1875–1943 ). The emigration of these authors and many of their colleagues to Palestine in the first decades of the 20 th century signalled the emergence of Palestine as the centre of Hebrew literature. This shift to Palestine was further strengthened by the major political events of the 20 th century, the rise of Communism in Eastern Europe, the mass destruction of European Jews by the Nazis, and the foundation of the State of Israel in 1948 . Modern Israeli authors such as ...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...TNA in LAB/48/123–7. Case files of the Immigration Appellate Authorities are held in the Lord Chancellor's Department record series LCO 42, for 1971–97 . Most of these 875 files are subject to closure periods ranging from 30 to 75 years. Many files contain photographs and original X‐rays. Once the country and place‐name of an ancestor's origins are discovered, one can build a local history of that place. During British rule in India, the Office of the Surveyor‐General and other administrative bodies created numerous maps as well as unpublished histories of...

9 Missionary Printing

9 Missionary Printing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
4,077 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...( Flos Sanctorum ) in Tamil followed in 1580 and 1586 respectively. All these books were prepared in accordance with instructions issued in 1575 by Alessandro Valignano , who was responsible for all Jesuit missions in Southeast and East Asia between 1573 and 1606 (Wicki, x. 269, 334). He would also play a crucial role in the beginnings of missionary printing in China and Japan. The first publication in an Indian language other than Tamil was printed in Konkani some time before 1561 at the College of St Paul. In a letter from Goa on 1 December 1561...

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800

20a The History of the Book in Britain, c.1475–1800   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,011 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... ( 1579 ) indicates that it was ‘Printed by Hugh Singleton , dwelling in Creede Lane neere vnto Ludgate at the signe of the gylden Tunne, and are there to be solde.’ Increasingly, however, title-pages came to bear a standard formula, which indicated that a book was printed ‘By X for Y.’ Thus, for example, when Thomas Middleton ’s Micro-cynicon appeared in 1599 , the title-page noted that it had been ‘Imprinted at London by Thomas Creede , for Thomas Bushell ’ and that it was ‘to be sold’ at Bushell’s ‘shop at the North Doore of Paules Church’. Here...

3 The Ancient Book

3 The Ancient Book   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,942 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...for their cultural achievements in other areas. Runes are alphabetic, though without taking full advantage of that system (e.g. consonants do not double) ( see 1 ). They seem to be drawn from the Roman alphabet, adapted to a non-Latin language: five ‘unnecessary’ letters (K, Q, X, Y, and Z) are used for phonemes and language clusters that have no Latin equivalent, while one rune has no equal in the Roman alphabet. Runes began in the Romanized centres of northern Germany and spread from there, appearing on high-prestige artefacts to record the owner’s or...

6 The European Printing Revolution

6 The European Printing Revolution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,082 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
1

...History , 11 (1980), 265–86 N. Harris , ‘ Sopravvivenze e scomparse delle testimonianze del Morgante di Luigi Pulci ’, Rinascimento , 45 (2005), 179–245 L. Hellinga , ‘The Codex in the Fifteenth Century: Manuscript and Print’, in A Potencie of Life , ed. N. Barker (1993) X. Hermand et al ., ‘Les Politiques éditoriales dans l’Europe des imprimeurs au XV e siècle: un projet de recherches, en cours’, Archives et bibliothèques de Belgique , 87 (2009), 75–82 R. Hirsch , Printing, Selling and Reading 1450–1550 , 2e (1974) ISTC K. Jensen , ‘Printing the...

Illogic

Illogic   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
1,734 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

..., at 2. H. ✳Times more than . A problem similar to but far less egregious than the illogic of ✳times less than comes up when we say that X is ✳two times more than Y. The common understanding is that if Y is 1, then X is 2. But strictly speaking, one time more than Y could also be 2, because more implies that the result of 1-times-X is added to X to arrive at Y. The more precise and unambiguous wording is “X is two times as much as Y.” I. Miscellaneous Other Examples. For various other brands of poor thinking, see adjectives (b) , all ( d ) , ...

Possessives

Possessives   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,753 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

.... A. Singular Possessives. To form a singular possessive, add -'s to most singular nouns—even those ending in -s , -ss , and -x (hence Jones's , Nichols's , witness's , Vitex's ). E.g.: “Noting Congress's move to regulate maternity hospitalization, managed-care advocates predict that politicians would legislate health care.” Kent Jenkins et al., “Health Care Politics,” U.S. News & World Rep . , 1 Dec. 1997 , at 24. The traditional approach of the AP Stylebook (see, e.g., the 1996 6th ed.) was to use nothing more than an apostrophe...

Plurals

Plurals   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
2,782 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...fireplace valued at $4,000.” “Building Permits,” Providence J.-Bull . , 9 Jan. 1997 , at C4. F. Proper Names. Although few books on grammar mention the point, proper names often cause problems as plurals. The rule is simple: most take a simple -s , while those ending in -s , -x , or -z , or in a sibilant -ch or -sh , take -es . Thus: Singular Form Plural Form Adam Adams Adams Adamses Bush Bushes Church Churches Cox Coxes Flowers Flowerses Jones Joneses Levy Levys Lipschutz Lipschutzes Mary Marys Rabiej Rabiejs (the -j- is silent) Shapiro Shapiros...

Punctuation

Punctuation   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
7,703 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...sentence, the closing parenthesis follows the end punctuation; if not, the end punctuation is placed outside, as in the previous sentence here. More specifically, parentheses are used in four ways. First, they indicate interpolations and remarks by the writer of the text <Mrs. X (as I shall call her) now spoke> . Second, they specify, in one's own running text, an authority, definition, explanation, reference, or translation <according to Fowler ( FMEU1 at 64), it is correct to . . . > . Third, in reporting a speech, they sometimes indicate interruptions...

diagonal procedure

diagonal procedure  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
The method first used by Cantor to show that there cannot be an enumeration of the real numbers. Any real number can be written as an infinite decimal. So we imagine a correspondence with the natural ...
Factor Theorem

Factor Theorem  

The following result, which is an immediate consequence of the Remainder Theorem:TheoremLet f(x) be a polynomial. Then x−h is a factor of f(x) if and only if f(h)=0.The theorem is valuable for ...
X-Phile

X-Phile  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Literature
A fan of the television series The X-Files. 1994 TV Guide (Jan. 15) 20/1 They—the X-ophiles, the growing cult audience for The X-Files—provided Fox with its best ever ratings for ...
unconditional inequality

unconditional inequality  

Always true, irrespective of the values taken by the variables so x 2+2x+3>0 is unconditional since it can be expressed as (x+1)2+2>0 which is always>0, but x 2+2x−3>0 is a conditional inequality ...
L-moments

L-moments  

Measures of location, spread, and other properties of distributions that are computed from linear combinations of the ordered data values x(1)≤x(2)≤…≤x(n) (with mean x̄, which is the first L-moment). ...
Barcan formula

Barcan formula  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Philosophy
A fundamental thesis in quantified modal logic, first isolated by the 20th-century American philosopher Ruth Barcan Marcus. It was originally the schema that ◊(∃x)Ax strictly implies (∃x)◊Ax ...
focus to skin distance

focus to skin distance  

(fsd)The distance between the focal spot of the x-ray tube (where x-rays are produced) marked with a red dot on the intra-oral x-ray head to the skin surface of the patient. For the long cone ...
p20

p20  

Reference type:
Overview Page
1. p20-ARC One of the subunits of ARP2/3.2. p20-CGGBP (CGG-binding protein1) A protein that binds to the unmethylated form of the trinucleotide repeat in the 5′ UTR that is a feature of fragile X ...
high-energy astrophysics

high-energy astrophysics  

The study of X-rays, gamma rays, and cosmic rays coming from the Universe. The energy of the radiation is usually expressed in terms of electronvolts (eV). X-rays and gamma rays range in energy from ...

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