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Trust and Social Relations in African Politics

Trust and Social Relations in African Politics   Reference library

Dominic Burbidge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
10,431 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Index (Range: 0 to 1) Burundi 8.20 483 0.530 Malawi 7.93 777 0.334 Mali 7.80 1,047 0.558 Burkina Faso 7.23 1,304 0.535 Tanzania 7.23 1,380 0.332 Mauritius 6.23 13,487 – Namibia 6.13 6,520 0.187 Mozambique 6.10 882 0.512 Kenya 5.97 1,522 0.229 Zimbabwe 5.73 – 0.172 Uganda 5.70 1,165 0.367 Algeria 5.60 7,339 – Zambia 5.40 1,475 0.328 Sierra Leone 5.37 1,171 0.439 South Africa 5.30 9,860 0.057 Cape Verde 5.23 3,818 – Ghana 5.17 1,764 0.144 Benin 4.80 1,364 0.412 Lesotho 4.50 1,692 0.156 Liberia 4.50 564 0.485 Togo 4.50 906 0.284 Nigeria 4.00 2,294 0.310 Botswana...

Epistemic Communities

Epistemic Communities   Reference library

Peter M. Haas

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,846 words
Illustration(s):
4

..., the Google Scholar Internet search engine listed 3,305 citations and the Web of Science website listed 725 references to the introduction of the 1992 IO publication. Figures 1 and 2 show the growth over time of references to epistemic communities in ISI Web of Knowledge tracked journals. By country, citations were overwhelmingly in English-language journals (95 percent), with 2 percent in German, 1 percent in French, 1 percent in Norwegian, and between 0.4 percent and 0.3 percent in Spanish and Portuguese (see Figure 3 ). Disciplinary interest...

Belgium

Belgium   Reference library

Mike Beke

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,554 words

...votes, which allowed voters to rank their votes, increased significantly when politicians started using mass media to reach the public in the larger constituencies (Fiers, 169–211). Civil Service. It is not surprising that the Belgium's civil service is a complicated web of federal and regional institutions. Several attempts on all governmental levels have been made to decrease the complexity of the system and the amount of civil servants, and to cut red tape. The reforms have met political and administrative support and opposition. The long-term...

Social Media and Elections in Africa

Social Media and Elections in Africa   Reference library

Iginio Gagliardone

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,621 words

...election clashes in Kenya, 1992 and 1997. African Security Review , 8 (4), 75–80. Norris, P. (2001). Digital divide: Civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet worldwide . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Okolloh, O. (2009). Ushahidi, or “testimony”: Web 2.0 tools for crowdsourcing crisis information. Participatory Learning and Action , 59 (1), 65–70. Osnos, E. (2018, September 10). Can Mark Zuckerberg fix Facebook before it breaks democracy? NPR . Outa, G. O. (2001). The dramaturgy of power and politics in post-colonial Kenya:...

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable

The Challenges of Making Research Collaboration in Africa More Equitable   Reference library

Susan Dodsworth

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,738 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of Chicago Press. U.K. Research and Innovation . (n.d.). Excellence with impact . Webber, S. , & Prouse, C. (2018). The new gold standard: The rise of randomized control trials and experimental development . Economic Geography , 94 (2), 166–187. Notes 1. Collaborative research in Africa also raises ethical and practical issues, including challenges in protecting the quality of consent (for a discussion of these issues, see Dodsworth & Cheeseman, 2018b ). 2. The terms “North” and “South” are imperfect labels. However, this article uses them as a...

Conceptualizing Militias in Africa

Conceptualizing Militias in Africa   Reference library

Rebecca Tapscott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,768 words

...especially in political science since the early 2000s and particularly in literature on civil war (Web of Science). Additionally, several new datasets have been released since 2010 that code for militias and/or their actions: The Armed Conflict Location and Event Dataset ( Raleigh, Linke, & Hegre, 2010 ), the UNCP Non-State Conflict Dataset ( Sundberg, Eck, & Kreutz, 2012 ), and the Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict Dataset ( Cohen & Nordås, 2014 ). 2. This may apply equally to other concepts such as paramilitaries, gangs, death squads, vigilantes, and...

Organized Crime and Criminal Networks in Africa

Organized Crime and Criminal Networks in Africa   Reference library

Mark Shaw and Tuesday Reitano

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,650 words
Illustration(s):
1

... Illicit financial flows from Africa: Hidden resource for development . Washington, DC: Global Financial Integrity. Keatinge, T. (2014). The role of financing in defeating al-Shabaab . Whitehall Reports, RUSI Publications[https://rusi.org/sites/default/files/201412_whr_2-14_keatinge_web_0.pdf]. Kriegler, A. , & Shaw, M. (2016). A citizen’s guide to crime trends in South Africa . Johannesburg, South Africa: Jonathan Ball. Lacher, W. (2012). Organised crime and conflict in the Sahel-Sahara region . Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International...

Corruption in African Politics

Corruption in African Politics   Reference library

Tom Lodge

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
9,936 words

...Botswana, the proportion answering in the affirmative was 0.1%. Other high scorers included Nigeria (21.5%) and Egypt (21.6%). Southern African countries were mostly in the low scoring group: In South Africa, for instance, 2.3% of respondents experienced bribery demands. Clearly, in Liberia, bribery is standard procedure whereas it is exceptional and rare in Botswana. Afrobarometer asks a range of questions about corruption that enables comparisons across state functions. For example, in South Africa, 0.5% had paid a bribe to obtain school-related services...

The African Union: Successes and Failures

The African Union: Successes and Failures   Reference library

Thomas Kwasi Tieku

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,506 words

...toward the policy community, they are often very short, written in highly accessible language, and widely available on the Web. But they are written in such a short space of time and with such speed that they usually lack the in-depth analysis and sober reflections associated with good academic work. It is therefore common to encounter factual errors, hasty generalizations, and opportunistic assertions when reading materials on the AU. 2 Moreover, many of the AU-related publications are security-centric. They are written by people within the security...

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism

Change and Continuity in African Electoral Politics Since Multipartyism   Reference library

Jaimie Bleck and Nicolas van de Walle

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
11,268 words
Illustration(s):
1

...In Africa, the focus on individual valence favors incumbents, who can draw on their previous experience in office to prove their notoriety and viability of winning with a sufficient coalition of supporters. They can also point to existing diplomatic relationships to donors and a web of relations in the domestic system. Challengers face greater hurdles in proving their competence and their ability to win without previous experience in executive office. Political Parties. The political class has exhibited remarkable continuity since the transition to multiparty...

Identity, Politics of

Identity, Politics of   Reference library

Suzanne Oboler, Deena J. González, Frances R. Aparicio, María de los Angeles Torres, and Silvio Torres-Saillant

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
6,860 words

...2.6 708,741 2.0 143,660 25.4     Other Central American 7,010 0.0 93,234 0.3 86,224 1,230.0 South American 1,035,602 4.7 1,419,979 4.0 384,377 37.1     Argentinean 100,921 0.5 107,275 0.3 6,354 6.3     Bolivian 38,073 0.2 45,188 0.1 7,115 18.7     Chilean 68,799 0.3 73,951 0.2 5,152 7.5     Colombian 378,726 1.7 496,748 1.4 118,022 31.2     Ecuadorian 191,198 0.9 273,013 0.8 81,815 42.8     Paraguayan 6,662 0.0 8,929 0.0 2,267 34.0     Peruvian 175,035 0.8 247,601 0.7 72,566 41.5     Uruguayan 21,996 0.1 20,242 0.1 −1,754 −8.0     Venezuelan 47,997 0.2...

Teaching with Technology: Active Learning in International Studies

Teaching with Technology: Active Learning in International Studies   Reference library

Steven F. Jackson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,793 words

...Science and Politics 35 (2), 229–32. King, K.P. , and Gura, M. (2007) Podcasting for Teachers: Using a New Technology to Revolutionize Teaching and Learning . Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. Klemm, W.R. (2007) Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching. College Teaching 55 (3), 121–4. Kompf, M. (2005) Information and Communications Technology (ICT) and the Seduction of Knowledge, Teaching, and Learning: What Lies Ahead for Education. Curriculum Inquiry 35 (2), 213–33. Kuzma, L. (1998) The World Wide Web and Active Learning in the...

Epistemic Communities

Epistemic Communities   Reference library

Peter M. Haas

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,835 words

..., the Google Scholar Internet search engine listed 3,305 citations and the Web of Science website listed 725 references to the introduction of the 1992 IO publication. Figures 1 and 2 show the growth over time of references to epistemic communities in ISI Web of Knowledge tracked journals. By country, citations were overwhelmingly in English-language journals (95 percent), with 2 percent in German, 1 percent in French, 1 percent in Norwegian, and between 0.4 percent and 0.3 percent in Spanish and Portuguese (see Figure 3 .) Disciplinary interest...

Technology and Development in International Communication

Technology and Development in International Communication   Reference library

Nanette S. Levinson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,630 words

...and/or political change. Three examples come from the government, university, and NGO sectors: the USAID Challenge, the UC Berkeley Human Rights Mobile Challenge, and the Social Action Change the Web Challenge (see www.netsquared.org ). Again, however, there needs to be additional research on the roles of culture, especially in interaction with web 2.0 technologies. There clearly is something new here and much more research is needed to capture possible impacts on development and relationships to international organizations, governments, and the private...

Model UN and Model EU Programs

Model UN and Model EU Programs   Reference library

Gretchen J. Van Dyke

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,280 words

...or international relations theories. ( Lantis 2000 :131–2; McIntosh 2001 :271, 274; Chasek 2005 :4) The Adams–Adamski MUN preparatory guide devotes four entire chapters to the UN’s historical foundations, governing structures, and current issue areas. ( 2002 :9–42) The study guides of the large-scale simulations, such as the NMUN, also urge students to broaden their knowledge of the UN system as they prepare, and the MUN web sites generally provide valuable links to the various parts of the UN’s web site to assist with this step ( NMUN 2009b ). As soon as...

Information Technologies and the Global Political Economy

Information Technologies and the Global Political Economy   Reference library

Jeffrey A. Hart

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,333 words

...and is growing rapidly. ICT services include, among others, the software industry, telecommunications services, data processing, and web-based information services. Table 1 shows estimates made by the Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association ( JEITA ) of global revenues for global electronics and information technology industries in 2008 . JEITA estimated total revenues to be over $2 trillion. Importance of ICT Industries in the Global Economy Many scholars argue that the importance of ICT industries goes beyond the...

Teaching with Media

Teaching with Media   Reference library

Michael Kuchinsky

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,603 words

...and learning resources on South Asia. Indiana University Bloomington: West European Studies. At www.indiana.edu/∼west/outreach_teaching.shtml , accessed May 27, 2009. Teaching resources. AllAcademic Research: Web-based K-12 Resources for Teaching about Latin America. At www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/9/8/0/8/p98081_index.html , accessed May 27, 2009. LASER: Latin American School and Educational Resources. At http://laser.msu.edu/ , accessed May 27, 2009. About the Author Michael Kuchinsky is an Assistant Professor...

International Communication in Social Movements and Interest Groups

International Communication in Social Movements and Interest Groups   Reference library

Kenneth Rogerson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
6,891 words

...only types. There are cell phones, satellites, digital cameras, social networking sites, blogs, video sharing sites like YouTube and others. Some of these are different technologies altogether, others are simply differing uses of existing technologies, sometimes referred to as Web 2.0. Authors have attempted to place these technologies in the historical context of development. Harold Innis’s ( 2007 ) seminal work on the political power of communication networks actually ends with the printing press, emphasizing that the tools used to connect people may simply...

Terrorism and Counterterrorism on the Internet

Terrorism and Counterterrorism on the Internet   Reference library

Gabriel Weimann

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,032 words

...located in the United States. As the researchers concluded: What is clearly evident however is that jihadist content is spreading far beyond traditional jihadist websites or even dedicated forums to embrace, in particular, video sharing and social networking – both hallmarks of Web 2.0 – and thus extending their reach far beyond what may be conceived as their core support base in the Middle East and North Africa region to diaspora populations, converts, and political sympathizers. Recent studies have identified numerous, albeit sometimes overlapping, ways in which...

Global Governance and Feminist Activism

Global Governance and Feminist Activism   Reference library

Julie Mertus

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
6,867 words

...Wong, K.S. (2003) Pranks and Fake Porn: Doing Feminism My Way. In Dicker, R. , and Piepmeier, A. (eds.) Catching a Wave: Reclaiming Feminism for the 21st Century . Boston: Northeastern University. World Bank (2008) Gender in the World Bank . http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTGENDER/0,,contentMDK:20260262~menuPK:489120~pagePK:210058~piPK:210062~theSitePK:336868,00.html , accessed July 27, 2009. Online Resources Centre for the Study of Global Governance. At www.lse.ac.uk/Depts/global , accessed July 27, 2009. An international research...

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