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Science 2.0

Science 2.0   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Internet (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

... 2.0 A term used to describe the transformation of scientific research that has come about through the extensive use of computers both for the analysis and for the capture of...

Cohen’s d

Cohen’s d n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., the most familiar form being the difference between two means ( M 1 and M 2 ) expressed in units of standard deviations : the formula is d = ( M 1 − M 2 )/ σ , where σ is the pooled standard deviation of the scores in both groups. A value of d below 0.20 is considered small, 0.50 medium, and 0.80 large. [Named after the US psychologist Jacob (Jack) Cohen ( 1923–98 ) who devised it and popularized it in his book Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences ( 1969 , 1988...

arithmetic

arithmetic   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Philosophy
Length:
62 words

...The study of the natural numbers, which are 0, 1, 2, 3…and their successors. Arithmetic is characterized by Peano ’s postulates. Philosophical questions include the nature of our knowledge of those postulates; the nature of the numbers, which are apparently the objects of which arithmetic treats; and the relation of arithmetic to empirical science. See also abstract/concrete ; conventionalism ; formalism , logical ; logicism...

clo

clo   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...indoor conditions, i.e. at 70°F, relative humidity ≤ 50%, air movement ≤ 10 ft per minute, the body temperature to be at 98.2°F with metabolism at 50 kilocalories per square metre per hour. Gagge A. P. , Burton A. C. , Bazett M. C. Science 94, 428 (1941) Ipso facto , this is equivalent to a normal business suit plus medium underwear and about a quarter of an inch of clothing. Hence: 1 clo ≈ 0.18∼ K⋅m 2 W -1 (0.88∼degF⋅h⋅ft 2 ⋅B.t.u. -1 , 1.54...

Fourier analysis

Fourier analysis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
198 words
Illustration(s):
2

...( x ) = a 0 / 2 + ∑ n = 1 ∞ ( a n cos n x + b n sin n x ) . A series of this type is called a Fourier series . If the function is periodic with a period 2 π ‎, the coefficients a 0 , a n , b n are: a 0 = ∫ − π π f ( x ) d x , a n = ∫ − π π f ( x ) cos n x d x , ( n = 1 , 2 , 3 , … ) , b n = 1 / π ∫ − π π f ( x ) sin n x d x , ( n = 1 , 2 , 3 , … ) . Fourier analysis and Fourier series are named after the French mathematician and engineer Joseph Fourier ( 1768–1830 ). Fourier series have many important applications in mathematics, science, and...

Fourier analysis

Fourier analysis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Chemistry (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Science and technology, Chemistry
Length:
204 words
Illustration(s):
2

...f ( x ) = a 0 / 2 + ∑ n = 1 ∞ ( a n cos n x + b n sin n x ) A series of this type is called a Fourier series . If the function is periodic with a period 2 π ‎, the coefficients a 0 , a n , b n are: a 0 = ∫ - π + π f ( x ) d x , a n = ∫ - π + π f ( x ) cos n x d x , ( n = 1 , 2 , 3 , … ) , b n = ∫ - π + π 1 / π f ( x ) sin n x d x , ( n = 1 , 2 , 3 , .… ) . Fourier analysis and Fourier series are named after the French mathematician and engineer Joseph Fourier ( 1768–1830 ). Fourier series have many important applications in mathematics, science, and...

Middle Class

Middle Class   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...2 Growth in Proportion of Households Spending Rs 5,000 and Above per Month between 1983 and 2000 by Household Occupation Primary occupation of the household Rs 5,000 and above 1983 1987–8 1993–4 1999–2000 Upper professional 0.3 0.37 0.39 0.48 Lower professional 0.16 0.19 0.21 0.28 Manager & govt official 0.47 0.5 0.59 0.65 Proprietor—working 0.3 0.29 0.31 0.34 Clerical 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.28 Teacher 0.21 0.24 0.22 0.29 Merchant 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.17 Salesman 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.07 Service worker 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.11 Small farmer (≤5 acre land) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.07...

asymptotic series

asymptotic series   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
86 words

...asymptotic series A series formed by the expansion of a function in the form a 0 + a 1 / x + a 2 / x 2 +…+ a n / x n +…, such that the error resulting from terminating the series at the term a n / x n tends to zero more rapidly than 1/ x n as x tends to infinity. An asymptotic series expansion is not necessarily a convergent series . Asymptotic series are used very extensively in the physical sciences...

education in the sciences

education in the sciences   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science, Social sciences
Length:
3,596 words
Illustration(s):
2

...careers in science? What keeps them interested? Table 2. Distributions of Percentages of Students Planning Further Study in 19 Selected Countries by Science Area Area 5th Percentile 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile 95th Percentile Biological Sciences 2.2 3.5 4.0 5.2 6.5 Chemistry 0.7 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.0 Computer & Information Science 2.9 4.3 5.4 8.2 11.8 Earth Science 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.4 2.0 Engineering 3.9 7.2 9.1 12.1 14.8 Health Occupations 1.1 2.3 3.7 4.6 8.1 Health Sciences 3.7 5.1 8.8 11.5 14.7 Mathematics 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.0 2.9 Physics 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 2.2 Table...

biodiversity crisis

biodiversity crisis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...sustaining biodiversity’. E. O. Wilson ( 1992 ) calculates that if the annual extinction rate is 0.27%, and tropical forests contain 50% of all species, then about 0.14% of all species are committed to extinction each year. Unless immediate action is taken to restrain the rate of tropical habitat loss, the twenty-first century will see another major extinction catastrophe. See Pimm et al. (1995) Science 269, 5222 , and Gaston and Fuller (2007) PPG 31, 2 . http://www.iucn.org Website of International Union for Conservation of...

exponential decay

exponential decay   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Suppose that y = Ae kt , where A (>0) and k are constants, and t represents some measurement of time ( see exponential growth ). When k <0, y can be said to be exhibiting exponential decay. In such circumstances, the length of time it takes for y to be reduced to half its value is the same, whatever the value. This length of time, called the half‐life, is a useful measure of the rate of decay. It is applicable, for example, to the decay of radioactive isotopes. http://www.edumedia‐sciences.com/a100_l2‐radioactive‐decay.html An animation...

Biological Productivity

Biological Productivity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...9.0 0.2–1.5 0.6 5.4 3.6 1.3 Tundra 8.0 0.01–0.4 0.14 1.1 0.5–2.5 2 0.5 Shrub deserts 18.0 0.01–0.3 0.9 1.6 1 0.5 Dry and cold deserts 24.0 00.01 0.003 0.07 0.05 0.02 Agricultural crops 14.0 0.1–4 0.65 9.1 4–12 4 1.5 Swamps, marshes 2.0 1–6 0.3 6.0 7 3.0 Inland waters 2.0 0.1–1.5 0.4 0.8 0.2 Oceans 361.0 0.155 55.0 0.05 Open ocean 332.0 0.002–0.4 0.125 41.5 0.03 Upwelling zones 0.4 0.41–1 0.5 0.2 0.3 Coastal zones 26.6 0.20.6 0.36 9.6 0.2 Reefs and tidal zones 0.6 0.5–4 2.5 1.6 2.0 Brackish water 1.4 0.2–4 1.5 2.1 1.0 Global total (Earth) 510 0.336 172.5 0.48...

Gaussian gravitational constant

Gaussian gravitational constant   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...gravitational constant astronomy . Symbol k . 0.017 202 098 95, used in defining the astronomical unit of length from the mass of the Sun, using Kepler's third law and a day of 86 400 s, its dimensionality being such that k 2 has the dimensions of the Newtonian constant of gravitation . The Astronomical Almanac for the Year 2002 (Washington: US Government Printing Office and London: HMSO, 2001), also Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac (Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books,...

Terskol Observatory

Terskol Observatory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Observatory An observatory at an altitude of 3150 m on the southern slopes of Mt Elbrus in the northern Caucasus mountains of Russia, jointly owned and operated by the Ukrainian and Russian National Academies of Sciences. Its main telescope is a 2-m reflector opened in 1995 . Other instruments include the 0.65-m Large Horizontal Solar Telescope, opened in 1989 and rebuilt in 2000 . http://www.terskol.com Official observatory...

bit

bit   Reference library

Graham Saxby

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
149 words

..., byte . ‘Bit’ is a contraction of ‘binary digit’. In the binary system there are only two digits, 0 and 1, so that 2 in the denary (base 10) system is represented by 10, 3 by 11, 4 by 100, 5 by 101, and so on. In electronics, a bit can be represented by a switch that is either off (0) or on (1). Eight bits represent 2 8 (256) different numbers (a byte). A kilobyte (kb) is 1,024 bytes, a megabyte (Mb) is 1,024 kb, and a gigabyte (Gb) is 1,024 Mb. The full file size of a digitally recorded scene is roughly three bytes per pixel, so that a 3‐million pixel...

Microclimate

Microclimate   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...from plant canopies; these values vary significantly among the Earth's biomes Microclimate. Table 2. Albedos and emissivities * Material Albedo Emissivity Fresh snow 0.70–0.95 0.99 Old snow 0.55 0.82 Dry sand 0.25–0.45 0.91–0.95 Wet sand 0.10 0.94–0.98 Dry peat 0.05–0.15 0.97 Asphalt 0.05–0.20 0.95 Concrete 0.10–0.35 0.71–0.90 Grass 0.20 0.90–0.95 Water var 0.03 ≤ but ≤ 1.0 0.99 Deciduous forests 0.20 (leaves) 0.95–0.98 Coniferous forests 0.10–0.15 0.97–0.98 * Albedo is the ratio of reflected shortwave radiation to incoming shortwave radiation. ...

Hinode

Hinode   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...energy in flares, coronal mass ejections, and coronal heating. It carries an 0.5-m Solar Optical Telescope ( SOT ) observing in the 388–668 nm range, an Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer ( EIS ) observing in the wavelength ranges 17–21 nm and 25–29 nm, and a high-resolution grazing-incidence X-Ray Telescope ( XRT ) observing between 0.2 and 20 nm. Hinode was a successor to the Japanese Yohkoh solar observatory. http://hinode.nao.ac.jp/index_e.shtml Hinode science centre website. http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/e/enterp/missions/hinode/index.shtml ...

detection

detection   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
109 words

...The ears detect sound energies down to the random motion of air molecules (10 -16 watts, or 0.00003 dyn/cm 2 ). Sensitivity is always limited by the fact that energies cannot be less than Planck's quantum of action, and because all detectors have residual random activity, or ‘noise’, against which signals must be discriminated. (Published 1987) Barlow, H. (2001). ‘ The exploitation of regularities in the environment and the brain ’. Behavioural and Brain Sciences ,...

Global Dimming

Global Dimming   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

..., B. Zhang , and E. G. Dutton . “ Do Satellites Detect Trends in Surface Solar Radiation? ” Science 308 (2005), 850–854. DOI: 10.1126/science.1103159. Stanhill, G. , and S. Cohen . “ Global Dimming: A Review of the Evidence for a Widespread and Significant Reduction in Global Radiation with Discussion of Its Probable Causes and Possible Agricultural Consequences. ” Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107.4 (2001), 255–278. DOI: 10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00241-0. Streets, D. G. , Y. Wu and M. Chin . “ Two-Decadal Aerosol Trends as a Likely Explanation of...

The Influence of Teacher Education on Teacher Beliefs

The Influence of Teacher Education on Teacher Beliefs   Reference library

Maria Teresa Tatto

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
8,784 words

... R 2 .43 .46 .53 .43 .55 .44 Intercept −0.68 −0.43 −0.65 −0.59 −0.29 −0.31 OTL Variables Foundations 0.05 −0.13 Instruction Class Participation 0.18 * Class Reading 0.08 −0.08 Solving Problems −0.15 −0.10 −0.15 −0.15 * 0.09 Instructional Practice 0.12 0.23 * 0.24 * Instructional Planning −0.15 −0.19 −0.21 * 0.40 * Assessment Uses −0.15 −0.15 −0.31 * Assessment Practice 0.20 * 0.29 * 0.41 * Social Science 0.06 ...

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