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Prussian horse-kicks

Prussian horse-kicks  

A set of data introduced by Bortkiewicz. It illustrates the fact that the frequencies of occurrence of unlikely events follow a Poisson distribution even when there may be variations in the ...
river water, major constituents

river water, major constituents  

The average composition of river water is very different from that of sea water. The pH varies greatly from areas of high organic activity, e.g. the equatorial rain forests, to zones of little ...
birthday problem

birthday problem  

A well-known, but intriguing probability problem. There are n people in a room. Assume that none is born on 29 February and that the remaining 365 days are all equally likely as birthdays. What is ...
Amazonian

Amazonian  

A division of areological time, lasting from 1.80 Gy to the present in the Hartmann–Tanaka Model and 3.55 Gy to the present in the Neukum–Wise Model, and divided into three epochs: Lower Amazonian ...
brackish

brackish  

Applied to water that is saline, but less so than sea water. According to the Venice system, brackish waters are classified by the chlorine they contain and divided into zones. The zones, with their ...
nanoplankton

nanoplankton  

Marine planktonic organisms 2.0–20 μm in size.
sea state

sea state  

A system for the classification of average wave height, with a scale that ranges from 0 to 9.wave height (m)statedefinition00calm, glassy0–0.11calm, ...
four squares theorem

four squares theorem  

Any positive integer can be expressed as the sum of not more that four positive integers. Alternatively it can be expressed as the sum of squares of exactly four non-negative integers, see Lagrange ...
Lagrange theorem

Lagrange theorem  

(sum of four squares)Every natural number can be written as the sum of four squares of integers. This expression is not necessarily unique. For example,1=12+02+02+02,10=32+12+02+02 or 22+22+12+12.
femtoplankton

femtoplankton  

Marine planktonic organisms, 0.02–0.2μm in size, about which little is known.
chrysocolla

chrysocolla  

A hydrated silicate of copper, with the formula CuSiO2.2H2O; sp. gr. 2.0; hardness variable; greenish-blue; variable lustre; normally forms from the weathering of copper-rich mineral deposits, and ...
kaersutite

kaersutite  

A member of the alkali amphiboles with the composition (Na,K)Ca2(Mg,Fe)4Ti[Si6Al2O22](OH)2 in a group which includes katophorite Na(Na,Ca)(Mg,Fe2+)4Fe3+[Si7AlO22] (OH)2 and oxyhornblende NaCa2(Mg,Fe, ...
water velocity

water velocity  

The velocity (v m/s) of sound waves in water is dependent on temperature (T °C) and salinity (S parts per thousand), and can be calculated for any depth (Z) using the formula v = 1449 + 4.6T - ...
International Gravity Formula

International Gravity Formula  

Formula used to determine the gravitational acceleration at a given latitude (gϕ) for a model of the Earth that comprises a rotating, oblate spheroid. gϕ= g0(1 + α sin2 ϕ + β sin2 ϕ), where g0 is the ...
Gregory–Newton forward difference formula

Gregory–Newton forward difference formula  

Let x 0, x 1, x 2,…, x n be equally spaced values, so that x i=x 0+ih, for i=1, 2,…, n. Suppose that the values f 0, f 1, f 2,…, f n are known, where f i=f(x i), for some function f. The ...
mean body temperature

mean body temperature  

An average body temperature, which takes into account temperature variations throughout the body. It is not a mathematical mean, but is a weighted average often estimated using the equation: mean ...
stilpnomelane

stilpnomelane  

A phyllosilicate (sheet silicate) similar to biotite with the formula (K,Na,Ca)0–1.4 (Fe2+,Fe3+,Mg,Al,Mn)5.9–8.2 [Si8O20] (OH)4(OH,F)3.6–8.5; sp. gr. 2.59–2.96; hardness 3.0–4.0; properties similar ...
vector norm

vector norm  

For an n-dimensional vector x a vector norm is a non-negative function which satisfies:|x|>0 when x ≠ 0 and |x|=0 when x=0,|k x|=k×|x| for any scalar k,|x+y|≤|x|+|y|.
Langevin distribution

Langevin distribution  

A distribution used to model spherical data. The probability density function f in the direction (θ, ϕ) (See spherical data) is given byf(θ, ϕ)=c exp[κ{cosθ0 cosθ+sinθ0 sinθ cos(ϕ-ϕ0)}], 0≤θ≤π, -π≤ϕ ...
degenerate conic

degenerate conic  

A conic that consists of a pair of (possibly coincident) straight lines. The equation ax 2+2hxy+by 2+2gx+2fy+c=0 represents a degenerate conic if Δ=0, where

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