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Casualties

Casualties   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...of disease on the survival rates of sick and wounded soldiers was profound. In the Mexican War, the rate of death from disease was 103.9 per 1,000 men. The rate fell to 71.4 per 1,000 in the Civil War and then to 34.0 per 1,000 in the Spanish‐American War. In World War I, the rate was only 16.5 per 1,000, and in World War II it fell to just 0.6 per 1,000. Although the weapons of war continue to grow more destructive, improved tactical doctrine, more efficient evacuation, and advances in medical technology and techniques promise continued reduction in the...

Science And Technology

Science And Technology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...of just over 2 per cent of total defence expenditure. Australian defence science and technology has benefited greatly from Australia's involvement with other countries. From the time of the Joint Project Agreement with the United Kingdom in 1946 Australia has gained valuable experience through cooperative ventures and through the exchange of information with other nations. From the early 1950s Australia has been an active member of the Commonwealth Defence Science Organisation, the aim of which is to promote the best use of the defence science resources of...

hoplites

hoplites   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...and helmet; a double-grip, concave shield with bronze veneer; a wooden spear 7 to 10 feet (2.1 to 3 metres) long, and a secondary short iron sword. The helmet, breastplate, and greaves were constructed entirely of bronze, reaching a thickness of about a half-inch (1.27 cm), which provided substantial protection from the entry of most swords, missiles, and spears. The unusually large wooden shield of some 15–20 lb (6.8–9.1 kg) in weight, with a 3 foot (0.9 metre) diameter, covered half the warrior's body; its size and shape explain the nature of hoplite...

Urban Defenses

Urban Defenses   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,988 words
Illustration(s):
1

...perimeter. Illustrative examples of particularly well preserved medieval circuits include Ávila (perimeter of 1.6 miles [2.5 kilometers], with eighty-two towers), Visby (2.2 miles [3.5 kilometers], with twenty-seven towers), Lugo (1.3 miles [2.1 kilometers], with forty-six towers), Carcassonne (one mile [1.65 kilometers], with forty-two towers), Aigues Mortes (one mile [1.6 kilometers], with twenty towers), and Conwy (1.3 kilometers [0.8 miles], with twenty-one towers). Gates were the most prestigious and expensive elements in the circuit and were the focus...

Venereal Disease

Venereal Disease   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...symptoms did present themselves. The fighting in the South-West Pacific Area posed fewer problems than the Middle East, again because of a relative absence of sources of infection. The rates per thousand in the Army across the theatre (excluding Australia) were: 1942 —2.33; 1943 —1.06; 1944 —0.36; 1945 —7.69. In Australia the rates soared again, and once more the explanation, at least in part, was that VD was a ‘leave disease’. In the Army the rates were: 1942 —18.93; 1943 —16.85; 1944 —13.18; 1945 —17.08. Once again, the principal source of infection...

artillery

artillery   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
3,418 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The word artillery (probably from Old Fr.: atillier , to load or charge) can refer to a type of weapon; to an arm of service, alongside infantry, cavalry and engineers; or to the art and science of utilizing these weapons. The artillery arm has produced many great generals, most notably Napoleon . As a weapon, artillery is the most lethal form of land-based armament. It now includes guns, howitzers , mortars , and rockets , primarily designed for indirect fire , and also anti-aircraft guns, surface-to-air, and surface-to-surface missiles. In the ...

medicine

medicine   Reference library

Mark Harrison

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...keep such diseases under control. Medicine, Table 1: Major infectious diseases in the British Army during wartime, mean monthly incidence per 1,000 strength 1898–1901 1914–18 1944–5 Venereal disease 2.92 2.48 2.50 Jaundice 0.94 0.08 0.44 Diphtheria 0.01 0.11 0.69 Enteric fever 8.70 1.53 0.01 Dysentery 5.75 0.47 0.22 Pneumonia 0.38 0.42 0.17 Influenza 1.34 0.89 0.27 Scabies – – 3.46 Source : Crew, F. A. E. , The Army Medical Services. Campaigns , Vol. IV, North Western Europe (London, 1962 ), p. 561. Yet the lessons of the past were not always heeded by the...

USA

USA   Reference library

David M. Kennedy, D'Ann Campbell, Richard Jensen, Richard Chapman, D'Ann Campbell, Richard Jensen, I. C. B. Dear, Shelby Stanton, David M. Kennedy, Jeffrey J. Safford, and Clayton R. Koppes

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
22,261 words
Illustration(s):
8

...0.4 46,182 0.8 66,610 0.9 61,458 0.7 Military Police 147,840 2.7 222,639 2.9 203,823 2.5 Transportation 51,041 0.9 167,612 2.2 260,260 3.2 total services 435,769 26.3 1,857,042 34.4 2,735,076 36.1 3,095,020 37.9 Air Corps 270,535 16.3 1,270,677 23.5 1,810,900 23.9 1,831,091 22.4 All Other (includes Women's Army Corps, Warrant and Flight Officers, and No Branch Assigned) 83,391 5.0 333,252 6.2 485,451 6.4 477,758 5.9 grand total 1,657,157 100.0 5,398,888 100.0 7,582,434 100.0 8,157,386 100.0 a Armoured, Tank Destroyer, and Anti-aircraft were not reported as...

UK

UK   Reference library

John Gooch, Angus Calder, J. M. Lee, M. R. D. Foot, Keith Jeffery, M. R. D. Foot, Angus Calder, Charles Messenger, M. R. D. Foot, Tony Lane, M. R. D. Foot, and Peter Stansky

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,192 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of the Royal Marines was 12,390 men. This grew to 74,000 men by 1945 . Women Nurses WRNS ATS WAAF Sept 1939 2.4 – – – Sept 1940 7.9 7.9 36.1 17.4 Sept 1941 10.4 15.1 42.8 37.4 Sept 1942 13.9 33.3 162.2 141.5 Sept 1943 17.5 60.4 212.5 180.3 Sept 1944 20.3 74.0 198.2 171.2 Jun 1945 21.4 72.0 190.8 153.0 Source : Contributor. (c) Navy The Admiralty is the oldest of the British war ministries, founded during the reign of Henry VIII , and the Royal Navy is the UK's senior service. Its work was directed by the Admiralty Board, which consisted of the First Lord,...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

Giorgio Rochat, Lucio Ceva (Intelligence), and Tr. John Gooch

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
19,646 words
Illustration(s):
2

...mixed brigades which included two regimental batteries of pack artillery of eight 65 mm. (2.5 in.) guns and two of 81 mm. (3.1 in.) mortars (12 guns), a divisional battalion of 81 mm. mortars (18 guns), a divisional regiment of artillery of 24 75 mm. (2.9 in.) guns and 12 100 mm. (3.9 in.) guns (all horse-drawn or pack) and sometimes in addition an anti-tank company of eight 47 mm. (1.8 in.) guns (not self-propelled), one anti-aircraft company of eight 20 mm. (0.8 in.) machine-guns and a somewhat shabby force of fascist Blackshirts (two small battalions)....

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