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education in the sciences

education in the sciences   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science, Social sciences
Length:
3,596 words
Illustration(s):
2

...careers in science? What keeps them interested? Table 2. Distributions of Percentages of Students Planning Further Study in 19 Selected Countries by Science Area Area 5th Percentile 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile 95th Percentile Biological Sciences 2.2 3.5 4.0 5.2 6.5 Chemistry 0.7 1.2 1.4 1.6 2.0 Computer & Information Science 2.9 4.3 5.4 8.2 11.8 Earth Science 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.4 2.0 Engineering 3.9 7.2 9.1 12.1 14.8 Health Occupations 1.1 2.3 3.7 4.6 8.1 Health Sciences 3.7 5.1 8.8 11.5 14.7 Mathematics 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.0 2.9 Physics 0.6 0.7 0.9 1.1 2.2 Table...

women and minorities in the scientific community

women and minorities in the scientific community   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...2001 All Fields 1,257,648 Percentage of S&E All science and engineering (S&E) 400,206 Male 197,623 49.4 Female 202,583 50.6 White 267,848 66.9 Asian/Pacific Islander 36,398 9.1 Black 33,290 8.3 Hispanic 28,321 7.1 Native American/Alaskan Native 2,796 0.7 Source: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, 2004 , Table C-4, “Bachelor's Degrees, by Sex and Field: 1994–2001 ,” and Table C-6, “Bachelor's Degrees, by Field, Citizenship, and Race/Ethnicity: 1994–2001 .” Table 2. Doctoral Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and...

science policy, development of

science policy, development of   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...reinvested in R&D (anything from 0.5 to 2.5 percent in those days; today 3 percent or higher is considered a good benchmark). The chain of events from new ideas and discovery of physical laws to marketable products or commodities defined a linear model of innovation. Recommendations to member governments included norms for establishing scientific advisory bodies to government. Several debates followed. The Minerva debate (named after the journal that carried it) concerned criteria for choosing between different fields of science. The director of a big physics...

family, the, and science

family, the, and science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Selected Notes and Notables . American Society of Animal Science. 2002. http://www.asas.org/jas/symposia/esupp2/Footehist.pdf. Foucault, Michel . The History of Sexuality . Vol. 1: An Introduction. Translated by Robert Hurley . New York: Pantheon Books, 1978. Georgia Reproductive Specialists. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF-ET). 2003. http://www.ivf.com/ivffaq.html. Gladue, Brian A. , Richard Green , and Ronald E. Hellman . “ Neuroendocrine Response to Estrogen and Sexual Orientation. ” Science 225 (1984): 1496–1499. Grantly, Dick Read . Childbirth...

chemical and biological sciences

chemical and biological sciences   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Science Foundation. Table 2. Doctoral Degrees Awarded in Natural Sciences to Minority U.S. Citizens 1977 1999 Number Percent Number Percent African American 85 1.3 220 2 Hispanic 76 1.2 256 2 Native American 4 0.06 38 0.35 Source: National Science Foundation. Table 3. Minority Percentages of Freshmen Intending to Major in Science and Engineering 1977 2000 African American 6.0% 11.5% Hispanic 0.5% 7.1% Source: National Science Foundation. Industry and government labs, on the other hand, have been much more wel-coming to women and minorities in the sciences,...

Sex and the Body in Science

Sex and the Body in Science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...cultural values and genital surgery are illuminated in the process of “assigning” sex. “Atypical” is often demarcated on the basis of size: an enlarged clitoris or a small penis. But why should a clitoris that is larger at birth than the typical range of 0.2 to 0.85 centimeters or a penis that is smaller than 2.5 to 4.5 centimeters be considered a reason to perform genital surgery? Here heterosexism interacts with the two-sex economy to lead to an expectation not only of two (and only two) differentiated genitals but also of genitals that can (only) accomplish...

technology in history

technology in history   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...to U.S. GNP in 1996 Technology Category Energy Manufacturing (organization of work) Commu-nication Travel Military Medicine Agriculture, forestry, fishig Approximate contribution and percent of total to GNP of United States in 1996 (in billions)† 283.2(4.2%) 1316.0(19.4%) 695.3(10.2%) 455.5(6.7%) 270.0 (apx)(4.0%) 459.1(6.8%) 130.4(1.9%) Per Capita GNP by Country‡ Year USA UK France Germany 1998 $27331 18714 19558 17779 Computerization of the workplace Offshore assembly plants Personal computer “Smart” bombs Genetic manipulation Advanced reproductive...

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