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status attainment

status attainment  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An extensive literature investigating how educational achievements and other indicators of skill and ability translate into jobs ranked according to socio-economic status or prestige. The classic ...
paradigm

paradigm   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
721 words

...Kuhn was himself a determined anti-relativist, many of his arguments pointed in a relativist direction, and his work was widely used by those whose main aim was to debunk the view of science as an especially authoritative form of knowledge and to see sociology as a ‘multiple paradigm’ science. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-1224(197912)44%3A6%3C925%3ATPCASA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N A critical discussion of the use of the idea in sociology, by Douglas Lee Eckberg and Lester Hill: ‘The Paradigm Concept and Sociology: A Critical Review’....

Suicide

Suicide   Reference library

Silvia Sara Canetto

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,888 words

...Muslim-majority countries are low (relative to rates in non-Muslim-majority countries), with suicide rates for women being lower than those of men. There is, however, significant variability in official suicide rates across Muslim-majority countries—from a low of 0.0 for women (and 0.1, 0.2, 0.2, 0.7, respectively, for men) in Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and the Maldives, to a high of 9.4 for women (43 for men) in Kazakhstan (these suicide rates are per 100,000 population, and for the most recent year for each country). Suicide rates are also typically reported as...

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism

Transgender/Third Gender/Transsexualism   Reference library

Gwynn Kessler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,535 words

... 4, no. 2 (1998): 145–158. Stryker, Susan . “Transgender Theory: Queer Theory’s Evil Twin.” GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 10, no. 2 (2004): 212–215. Stryker, Susan . “(De)Subjugated Knowledges: An Introduction to Transgender Studies.” In The Transgender Studies Reader , edited by Susan Stryker and Stephen Whittle , pp. 1–17. New York and London: Routledge, 2006. Stryker, Susan , and Stephen Whittle , eds. The Transgender Studies Reader . New York and London: Routledge, 2006. Stryker, Susan . “Transgender Studies 2.0.” ...

Disease

Disease   Reference library

Gerald N. Grob

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of Illness: Science, Society, and Disease . New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Bigelow, George H., and Herbert L. Lombard. Cancer and Other Chronic Diseases in Massachusetts . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1933. Brandt, Allan M. No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States since 1880. Expanded ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Crosby, Alfred W., Jr. The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1972. Dubos, René. The Dreams of Reason: Science and Utopias ....

Health Care

Health Care   Reference library

Earle Waugh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
4,347 words

...invest in women's health, significant changes can be made. For example, in Bahrain , free public health care, both at the primary and maternity level, are available. It is not surprising that the maternal mortality dropped dramatically—to 0.22 per 1,000 live births, compared to the 2000 world average of 0.44 per 1,000. Information on maternity and other women's health concerns are freely available to women as is family planning assistance. While this data refers to maternity issues, there are studies that confirm this in other areas of treatment....

Marriage

Marriage   Reference library

Kenneth M. Cuno, Zafer Öter, and Abed Awad

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
12,450 words

...in Muslim Family Law . 2d ed. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2001. A basic introduction. Fyzee, Asaf A. A. Outlines of Muhammadan Law . 3d ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Discusses Muslim family law in India. Ghazālī, Abū Ḥāmid al- . The Proper Conduct of Marriage in Islam [Adab an-Nikah]; Book Twelve of Ihya Ulum ad-Din . Translated by Muhtar Holland. Hollywood, Fla.: Al-Baz Publishing, 1998. Al-Ghazālī (d. 1111) was one of the preeminent scholars of his era. This chapter of “The Revival of the Religious Sciences” deals with marital...

Women and Social Protest

Women and Social Protest   Reference library

Nadjib Ala’I, Natana J. DeLong-Bas, and Olga Davidson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,860 words

.... London: SAGE, 1997. Online Resources Hauslohner, Abigail . “Tragic Symbol: Egypt's Headscarf Martyr.” Time , July 12, 2009, http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1910030,00.html. “Indonesia Group Raps Saudi Beheading.” PressTV, 29 June 2011, http://www.presstv.ir/detail/186737.html . MR. “Saudi Salafi Scholars: Women Not Allowed Near the Kaaba.” Mujahideen Ryder (blog), September 2, 2006, http://www.mujahideenryder.net/2006/09/02/saudi-salafi-scholars-women-not-allowed-near-the-kaaba/ . “Presiden SBY Mempesona di Sidang ILO-Swiss, Sampaikan 6...

Rural Life and Society

Rural Life and Society   Reference library

Ginette Aley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the region slowly recovered. World War II required less governmental control over food production and more reliance upon county war boards and local farm bureaus. Again farmers enjoyed wartime prosperity and flourishing productivity achieved through a greater application of science and technology, a hallmark of twentieth-century agriculture. Agricultural scientists, chemicals, and the rise of biotechnology, including the genetic modification of plants and animals, all contributed to farmers’ astounding increase in productivity after World War II....

Political Leadership

Political Leadership   Reference library

Saana Svärd, Rachel Havrelock, Gillian Ramsey, Kristina Milnor, Susan E. Hylen, and Robert M. Royalty Jr.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,198 words

...(e.g., 1 Cor 9:1–2 ; 2 Cor 10:1–6 ). Another of Paul’s leadership qualities is self-mastery. He endures many hardships and persecution (e.g., 2 Cor 6:4 ; 11:23–28 ). He exercises control over his body and desires, using imagery of the athletic contest ( 1 Cor 9:24–27 ) and of warfare ( Rom 13:12 ; 2 Cor 10:3–4 ). As with Jesus, Paul’s suffering at the hands of others could be viewed as feminine. Paul also characterizes himself in feminine terms, as mother or nurse caring for children ( 1 Thess 2:7 ; cf. 1 Cor 3:2 ). The gendered language...

Women's Entrepreneurship

Women's Entrepreneurship   Reference library

Roksana Bahramitash and Roksana Bahramitash

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
6,299 words

...Elsevier Science, 2001. Cuno, K. M. “A Tale of Two Villages: Family, Property, and Economic Activity in Rural Egypt in the 1840s.” In Agriculture in Egypt: From Pharaonic to Modern Times , edited by Alan K. Bowman and Eugene Rogan , pp. 301–329. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Elgeziri, M. “Wading through Treacle: Female Commercial School Graduates (CGSS) in Egypt's Informal Economy.” Feminist Formations 22, no. 3 (2010): 10–50. Elson, D. “Gender-Aware Analysis and Development Economics.” Journal of International Development 5, no. 2 (1993):...

Cinema

Cinema   Reference library

Stefanie Van de Peer, Sara Saljoughi, Lamia Ben Youssef, and Eylem Atakav

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
10,546 words

...at Home, the Movies of Tunisia's Female Filmmakers Draw World Acclaim.” The Christian Science Monitor , October 4, 2007. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/1004/p05s01-wome.html/ . Carter, Sandra Gayle . What Moroccan Cinema? A Historical and Critical Study 1956–2006 . Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2009. Faaiek, Ahmed . “Fears of ‘Enhanced’ Censorship in the Wake of the Arab Spring.” Variety Arabia , June 11, 2012. http://varietyarabia.com/Docs.Viewer/99ad0d9a-431c-42f0-93b8-5eac751df1bc/default.aspx/ . Gabous, Abdelkrim . Silence, elles tournent: Les femmes...

Popular Religion

Popular Religion   Reference library

Benjamin B. DeVan, Dale F. Eickelman, Abbas Jaffer, Bianca J. Smith, Charles C. Stewart, and Zahraa McDonald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
8,884 words

...Netherlands, and Boston: E. J. Brill, 2004. Discusses the role that Islam plays in politics and society throughout the Middle East, Turkey, and South Asia. Schielke, Samuli . “On Snacks and Saints: When Discourses of Order and Rationality Enter the Egyptian Mawlid.” Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 135 (2006): 117–140. Smith, Margaret . Rābiʿa the Mystic and Her Fellow-Saints in Islām . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1928 (reprinted 2010). Remains the classic account of the role of female mystics in the Muslim tradition. Tapper,...

Women and Social Reform

Women and Social Reform   Reference library

Mervat Hatem, Heba Raouf Ezzat, Shahla Haeri, Valentine M. Moghadam, Susan Schaefer Davis, Leila Hessini, Stephanie Willman Bordat, Anita M. Weiss, Sharon Siddique, and Farjana Mahbuba

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
15,123 words

...commandeering the wife's salary, women being pressured to register property in their husband's name, harassment of working women by their families, and husbands being pressured to divorce working wives. In 2011, the percentage of women over fifteen in the labor force was 26.2 in Morocco, 15.0 in Algeria, and 25.5 in Algeria ( World Bank, 2012 ). Legal Status of Women. Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia are parties to the major United Nations human rights conventions, including the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (Morocco,...

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