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The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence   Reference library

Titus J. Galama, Adriana Lleras-Muney, and Hans van Kippersluis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
29,925 words
Illustration(s):
41

...d H = Mortality by 2007, hazard ratio (0.60/0.65) c E = Years of education (9.74/9.59) M/F 0.963 *** /0.951 *** {0.951–0.975}/{0.937–0.965} [Table 3, Column 3] M/F 0.948 *** /0.962 * {0.914–0.984}/{0.925–1.001} [Table 3, Column 4] van den Berg et al. (2012) e Danish Twin Registry Birth cohorts 1888–1897 N = 2,839/2,856 H = Mortality (0.62) E = Eligible for reform that expanded voluntary education (0.5/0.5) M/F –0.194 ** /–0.063 (0.086)/(0.080) [Table 11/12, Column 1] M/F –0.183 ** /–0.054 f (0.088)/(0.087) [Table 11/12, Column 3] Behrman et al....

Industrial Relations

Industrial Relations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,703 words

... Japan 1880 0 0 0 6.1 0 0 0 0 0 1900 0.3 17.6 10.9 27.2 0 0 1.3 18.7 0 1914 1.8 29.4 16.8 34.8 18.5 26.3 36.4 6.4 50.9 0 1928 1.5 42.4 40.6 29.3 40.5 24.5 40.8 43.4 33.6 44.6 0 1939 14.0 n.a. 45.3 35.2 n.a. 25.3 42.8 53.6 38.8 43.2 n.a. 1947 19.7 46.9 46.8 45.4 n.a 38.9 52.9 57.0 48.6 52.8 31.5 1950 17.1 44.7 44.2 42.3 31.0 34.9 33.3 51.5 52.4 46.4...

Health Economics of the Workplace: Workplace Accidents and Effects of Job Loss and Retirement

Health Economics of the Workplace: Workplace Accidents and Effects of Job Loss and Retirement   Reference library

Jan C. van Ours

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,871 words

...3.1 3.2 2.9 0.3 Canada 3.2 3.3 3.0 0.3 Chile 2.9 3.0 2.8 0.2 Estonia 2.5 2.7 2.6 0.1 Finland 2.8 3.1 2.8 0.3 France 3.0 3.2 2.8 0.4 Germany 2.9 3.2 2.7 0.5 Hungary 2.7 3.0 2.7 0.3 Italy 2.9 3.0 3.0 0.0 Japan 2.6 2.7 2.6 0.1 Korea 3.0 3.0 2.9 0.1 Mexico 3.0 3.1 2.9 0.2 Netherlands 2.9 3.1 2.6 0.5 New Zealand 3.1 3.2 3.0 0.2 Norway 3.2 3.4 2.4 1.0 Poland 2.7 3.1 2.7 0.4 Slovenia 2.8 3.1 2.7 0.4 Spain 2.9 3.1 2.9 0.2 Sweden 3.0 3.1 2.9 0.2 Switzerland 3.1 3.3 3.0 0.3 Turkey 2.8 3.0 2.7 0.3 United Kingdom 3.0 3.2 2.9 0.3 United States 3.1 3.2 2.9 0.3 Note: ...

Design of Discrete Choice Experiments

Design of Discrete Choice Experiments   Reference library

Deborah J. Street and Rosalie Viney

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,342 words
Illustration(s):
9

...Table 4. A Generator-Developed DCE From an OA[8; 2 4 , 4;2] Choice Set OA Option 2 Option 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 3 2 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 4 0 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 5 1 0 0 1 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 6 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 7 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 8 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 The easiest way to summarize the systematic changes is to represent them by a k -tuple of numbers, which is called a generator . This generator is added to each row of the OA in turn to get the next option in the...

Education

Education   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,915 words
Illustration(s):
1

... 1861 0.3 0.1 1870–1871 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.4 1875 0.5 0.2 1880–1881 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.4 1885 0.6 1890–1891 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.8 1895–1896 0.6 0.8 1900–1901 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.5 1910–1911 0.8 0.7 0.9 0.4 1.1 0.4 0.5 0.9 1918–1919 1.2 0.9 ...

Crop Yields

Crop Yields   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,443 words

... 42.4 Europe 47.6 50.8 45.5 45.1 45.0 50.2 53.5 61.8 N/C America 19.0 20.8 21.9 27.1 37.5 43.3 50.9 56.0 S America 16.1 17.6 17.2 18.4 17.5 19.0 24.3 35.5 Asia 15.5 14.4 15.9 19.5 24.0 27.9 36.2 39.2 Africa 13.9 13.0 12.5 14.9 18.2 17.4 20.4 22.6 Oceania 34.2 35.4 35.9 40.0 52.4 49.9 81.3 91.8 USSR 16.6 — — 22.1 34.0 38.9 35.3 23.6 a 1930, in fact the average of 1926–1930. b USSR maize, 1926–1930, in fact 1932. The FAO...

Machine Learning in Policy Evaluation: New Tools for Causal Inference

Machine Learning in Policy Evaluation: New Tools for Causal Inference   Reference library

Noémi Kreif and Karla DiazOrdaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
15,654 words
Illustration(s):
11

...We review these methods in the following section. Table 2. ATEs and 95% CIs Estimated Using IPTW and Matching Methods ATE 95% CI L 95% CI U Unadjusted (naive) 0.13 0.11 0.16 IPTW logistic 0.06 0.02 0.11 IPTW TWANG 0.08 0.04 0.12 IPTW SL 0.11 0.09 0.13 PS matching TWANG 0.08 0.04 0.12 Genetic Matching 0.06 0.03 0.09 Machine Learning Methods for the Outcome Model. Recall that under the unconfoundedness and positivity assumptions, the ATE can be identified by E [ Y | A = 1 , X ] − E [ Y | A = 0 , X ] , reducing the problem to one of estimation of these...

The Spatial Dimension of Health Systems

The Spatial Dimension of Health Systems   Reference library

Elisa Tosetti, Rita Santos, Francesco Moscone, and Giuseppe Arbia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,269 words
Illustration(s):
14

...Emergency Admissions at CCG Level (Top Panel) and Neighborhood Level (Bottom Panel) Row-Standardized Weights Matrix Moran’s I p-value CCG level Contiguity 0.403 <0.0001 Six nearest neighbors 0.281 <0.0001 Distance threshold 0.044 0.0131 Neighborhood level Contiguity 0.452 <0.0001 Six nearest neighbors 0.443 <0.0001 Distance threshold 0.133 <0.0001 GP practice level (point data) Distance threshold (*) 0.0056 <0.0001 Notes : (*): For calculation of this index, a row-standardized 5-nearest-neighbors (as shown in Figure 3 ) has been adopted. The Moran’s I is a...

Noncompliance and Missing Data in Health Economic Evaluation

Noncompliance and Missing Data in Health Economic Evaluation   Reference library

Karla DiazOrdaz and Richard Grieve

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
13,403 words
Illustration(s):
9

...Y 2 i ) τ be the transpose of the vector of outcomes, which now includes the endogenous variable D as well as the bivariate end-points of interest. The reduced form can now be written in terms of the linear predictors of D i , Y 1 i , Y 2 i as: μ 0 i = β 0 , 0 + β 1 , 0 Z i μ 1 i = β 0 , 1 + β 1 , 1 β 1 , 0 Z i μ 2 i = β 0 , 2 + β 1 , 2 β 1 , 0 Z i (7) with β 0 , 0 = α 0 , β 1 , 0 = α 1 . We treat D i , Y 1 i , Y 2 i as multivariate normally distributed, so that: ( D i Y 1 i Y 2 i ) ~ N { ( μ 0 i μ 1 i μ 2 i ) , ∑ = ( σ 0 2 s 01 s 02 s 01 σ 1 2 s...

Tarshis, Lorie

Tarshis, Lorie (1911–93)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,734 words

...of association of +0.94 or +0.96 (depending on which real wage series was used), clear evidence against the claim in Keynes's Chapter 2 that money and real wages tend to move in opposite directions. (A coefficient of association would be +1.0 if changes in the two variables always had the same sign, −0.1 if the changes always had opposite signs, and 0 if same or opposite signs were equally frequent.) However, in a note added after his 1939 article was set up in proof, Tarshis reported a coefficient of association of −0.48 between changes in...

Measuring Health Utility in Economics

Measuring Health Utility in Economics   Reference library

José Luis Pinto Prades, Arthur Attema, and Fernando Ignacio Sánchez Martínez

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,224 words
Illustration(s):
9

...as a sequence of periods of time ( t 1 , t 2 , . . . , t n ) , each of them lived in a certain health state ( q 1 , q 2 , . . . , q n ) , the value attached to that profile (i.e., the number of QALYs) would be V ( q 1 , t 1 ; q 2 , t 2 ; . . . ; q n , t n ) = v ( q 1 ) t 1 + v ( q 2 ) t 2 + . . . + v ( q n ) t n (1) where v ( q i ) is the HRQOL weight or the “utility” corresponding to state q i , on a 0 to 1 scale, with 1 representing full health and 0 representing death—values of v ( q ) below 0 are allowed when health states are regarded as...

Koopmans, Tjalling Charles

Koopmans, Tjalling Charles (1910–85)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,230 words
Illustration(s):
12

...priori restriction is made. So if we assume that rainfall x t2 does not enter into the demand equation, we have β 21 = 0, which leads to y 21 = π 21 /π 22 , which can be substituted into the other two equations to obtain β 11 and β 31 — as long as π 21 ≠ 0. But π 22 ≠ 0 if and only if β 22 ≠ 0, which can be seen as follows. Given that y 21 ≠ y 22 and β 21 = 0 by assumption, if π 22 ≠ 0 then from the above equations β 22 ≠ β 21 = 0; conversely, if π 22 = 0 then β 22 = β 21 = 0. This is a special case of the necessary and sufficient ‘rank...

Chemical Industries

Chemical Industries   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
10,982 words
Illustration(s):
3

... 20.0 17.5 16.0 17.9 15.0 8.4 6.6 France 13.1 13.1 13.5 9.9 10.1 8.6 9.1 7.8 Germany 1 35.0 40.2 30.9 31.6 10.4 20.2 17.7 12.1 Other Western Europe 2 13.1 13.1 15.3 19.4 20.5 21.1 31.7 32.0 United States 14.2 11.2 18.1 16.9 34.6 27.4 13.2 14.1 Canada 0.4 0.9 2.5 2.9 5.2 4.4 1.8 1.6 Japan 0.4 1.0 1.8 3.0 0.8 3.1 5.4 6.1 Other 4.2 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.2 12.8 19.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100...

Bayesian Statistical Economic Evaluation Methods for Health Technology Assessment

Bayesian Statistical Economic Evaluation Methods for Health Technology Assessment   Reference library

Andrea Gabrio, Gianluca Baio, and Andrea Manca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
16,729 words
Illustration(s):
32

...= 0 , 1 from J different studies: r j 0 ∼ Binomial ( p j 0 , n j 0 )       r j 1 ∼ Binomial ( p j 1 , n j 1 ) logit ( p j 0 ) = α j                                 logit ( p j 1 ) = α j + β j α j ∼ Normal ( μ α , σ α 2 )           β j ∼ Normal ( μ β , σ β 2 ) , (19) where p j t are the probabilities of an event in the two groups in each of the j = 1 , … , J studies, α j and β j are the estimated log-odds of an event in group 0 and between the two groups, μ = ( μ α , μ β ) are the overall pooled estimates of α j and β j , while σ 2 = ( σ α 2 ,...

Fertilizing

Fertilizing   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,031 words
Illustration(s):
1

...little if any inorganic fertilizer. Japan and Taiwan, in contrast, were using over 300 kilograms per hectare by 1950 . T able 1. World Fertilizer Production (million tons of nutrient) Nitrogen Phosphate Potash 1870s 0.1 <0.5 0.1 1900–1913 0.4 2.5 0.9 1930s 1.0 3.8 2.8 1948–1953 4.5 6.1 4.8 1975–1976 43.8 26.1 23.5 1997–1998 90.1 34.9 24.9 S ource : Collins, 1947; Cowie, 1951; FAO, 1948; Gray, 1944; Smil, 1990; and Wright, 1909. In its early years, the fertilizer industry...

Valuation of Health Risks

Valuation of Health Risks   Reference library

Henrik Andersson, Arne Risa Hole, and Mikael Svensson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
12,487 words
Illustration(s):
33

...risks and is calculated as p j k = N j k E H j k × 2 , 0 0 0 × 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 , (4.2) where N j k is the number of fatal injuries and E H j k is total hours worked by everyone in the specific industry-occupation group. The rate is multiplied by 2,000 (hours worked per year per worker) and subsequently by 100,000 to express the rate as the annual risk per 100,000 people. The reported overall annual fatality rate was 6.23 fatalities per 100,000 employees, but this varied from, for example, 0.75 fatalities per 100,000 healthcare employees to 70.1...

Health Status Measurement

Health Status Measurement   Reference library

John Mullahy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
8,197 words
Illustration(s):
3

...thresholds, τ = t 0 , … , t d − 1 , define the diagnosis measure D as: D τ = { 0 , S < t 0 1 , t 0 ≤ S < t 1 ⋮ d , S ≥ t d − 1 That is, the diagnosis measure D τ is a coarsened (perhaps binary) representation of S . Such health status “diagnoses” arise across a broad span of clinical and population health contexts. In the examples noted above, Apgar scores less than 7 and less than 4 on the 10-point (M=5, C m = C = 3 ) scale are suggestive of moderate and high levels of neonatal distress, while PHQ-2 scores above 2 on the 6-point (M=2, C m = C = 4 )...

National Defense

National Defense   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,186 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Succession ( 1701–1714 ), some 450,000 to 500,000 men went to battle. The proportion of populations serving in the armed forces increased dramatically. For example, from about 1500 to 1700 , the French armed forces share of the population increased from 0.1 to 2.1 percent, the English share increased from 1.0 to 5.4 percent; and the Swedish share during its short bid for greatness increased spectacularly to 7.1 percent. The warring participants' reliance on long-term credit was extensive. Spain's decline in the seventeenth century can be linked to the lack of...

Economics and Genetics

Economics and Genetics   Reference library

Jason M. Fletcher

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,651 words

...to the special issue on integrating genetics and the social sciences. Biodemography and Social Biology , 57 (1), 1–2. Boardman, J. D. , & Fletcher, J. M. (2015). The promise of integrating genetics into policy analysis. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management , 34 (3), 493–496. Cesarini, D. , Dawes, C. T. , Johannesson, M. , Lichtenstein, P. , & Wallace, B. (2009). Genetic variation in preferences for giving and risk taking. Quarterly Journal of Economics , 124 (2), 809–842. Cesarini, D. , Johannesson, M. , Lichtenstein, P. , Sandewall...

The Rationale for Interventions to Foster Child Development

The Rationale for Interventions to Foster Child Development   Reference library

Samuel Berlinski and Marcos Vera-Hernández

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
9,246 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Asia and Pacific 31.6 18.6 10.2 9.0 Eastern Europe and Central Asia 23.0 15.0 9.4 8.5 Latin America and Caribbean 19.7 14.4 10.3 9.6 Middle East and North Africa 25.7 20.3 15.8 15.0 United States of America 3.3 2.8 2.4 2.3 South Asia 56.3 46.4 36.8 35.0 Sub-Saharan Africa 46.2 40.4 34.9 33.9 World Bank Income Classification Low income 50.6 43.4 36.5 35.2 Lower-middle income 49.9 41.2 33.0 31.5 Upper-middle income 24.4 13.8 7.3 6.4 High income 3.7 3.1 2.6 2.5 Source : UNICEF, WHO, World Bank Joint child malnutrition dataset (...

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