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status attainment

status attainment  

Reference type:
Overview Page
An extensive literature investigating how educational achievements and other indicators of skill and ability translate into jobs ranked according to socio-economic status or prestige. The classic ...
International Atomic Energy Agency

International Atomic Energy Agency   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,457 words

...among others can be accessed at this site: The Annual Report , Safeguards Status , Safeguards Action Plan . Keepin, G. R . Inside IAEA Today: First in a Three Part Series about the IAEA. Nuclear News 9, no. 1 (1966). Keepin, G. R . Inside IAEA Today Part 2: The Physical Sciences. Nuclear News 9, no. 1 (1966). Keepin, G. R . Inside IAEA Today Part 3: Conclusions and Comments. Nuclear News 9, no. 1 (1966). Olwell, Russel B ., and Peggy Kahn . The International Atomic Energy Agency . New york: Chelsea House, 2008. Peter...

Bibliographies

Bibliographies   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,002 words

...include Factiva and Dialogue. Keesing’s World News Archive, long recognized by researchers for its exhaustive news monitoring and the quality of its monthly articles on current political, social, and economic events, now aims to enhance its usability by employing the latest Web 2.0 technologies. Keesing’s allows users create their own content tags to create new connections between content as the focus of research shifts and develops. There are also specialist news resources focusing on specific aspects of current affairs. An example is the War & Terrorism...

Accidental Nuclear War

Accidental Nuclear War   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,121 words

...D ., and Dagobert L. Brito . Accidental Nuclear War: An Important Issue for Arms Control. In Accidental Nuclear War: Proceedings of the Eighteenth Pugwash Workshop on Nuclear Forces , edited by Derek Paul , Michael D. Intriligator , and Paul Smoker , pp. 6–30. Toronto: Science for Peace; Downsview, Ont.: Samuel Stevens, 1990. Mosher, David E ., Lowell H. Schwartz , David R. Howell , and Lynn E. Davis . Beyond the Nuclear Shadow: A Phased Approach for Improving Nuclear Safety and U.S.–Russian Relations . Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation,...

Algorithms and Journalism

Algorithms and Journalism   Reference library

Rodrigo Zamith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,243 words

...judgment? Algorithmic judgment, news knowledge, and journalistic professionalism . New Media & Society, 20 (5), 1755–1772. Caswell, D. , & Dörr, K. (2018). Automated journalism 2.0: Event-driven narratives . Journalism Practice, 12 (4), 477–496. Christin, A. (2017). Algorithms in practice: Comparing web journalism and criminal justice . Big Data & Society, 4 (2), 1–17. Christin, A. (2018). Counting clicks: Quantification and variation in web journalism in the United States and France . The American Journal of Sociology, 123 (5), 1382–1415. ...

Convergence in/of Journalism

Convergence in/of Journalism   Reference library

Ivar John Erdal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
6,859 words

...continuum: A model for studying collaboration between media newsrooms. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 13 (3)0, 150–168. de Sola Pool, I. (1983). Technologies of freedom . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press. Deuze, M. (2003). The Web and its journalisms: Considering the consequences of different types of newsmedia online. New Media & Society, 5 (2), 203–230. Deuze, M. (2004). What is multimedia journalism? Journalism Studies, 5 (2), 139–152. Deuze, M. (2007). Media work . Cambridge, U.K.: Polity Press. Domingo, D. , Salaverría, R. , Aguado Terrón...

Citizen Journalism

Citizen Journalism   Reference library

Serena Miller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,859 words

...G. (2011). Empowering the youth as citizen journalists: A South American experience. Journalism, 12 (6), 708–726. Bosshart, S. G. , & Schoenhagen, P. (2013). Amateurs striving for news production. Can they compete with professional journalism? Studies in Communication Sciences, 13 (2), 139–147. Bowman, S. , & Willis, C. (2003). We media: How audiences are shaping the future of news and information. A seminal report . Reston, VA: The Media Centre at the American Press Institute. Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and beyond: From production...

News Audiences and News Habits

News Audiences and News Habits   Reference library

Jannie Møller Hartley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,659 words

.... The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 608 (1), 233–250. Livingstone, S. , & Markham, T. (2008). The contribution of media consumption to civic participation . British Journal of Sociology, 59 (2), 351–371. Mathieu, D. (2012). A contextual approach to the mediation of news discourse (Doctoral thesis). Roskilde University, Denmark. McCombs, M. E. , & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36 (2), 176–187. Milioni, D. L. , Vadratsikas, K. , & Papa, V. (2012)...

tourism

tourism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Travel and Tourism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
6,244 words

...per year is estimated at 2.0 per cent. • The total contribution of travel and tourism to employment, including jobs indirectly supported by the industry, is forecast to rise from 258,592,000 jobs (8.8 per cent of total employment) in 2011 to 323,826,000 jobs (9.7 per cent) by 2021. Average real growth per year is estimated at 2.3 per cent. • Travel and tourism visitor exports are expected to generate US $1162.7 billion (5.8 per cent of total exports) in 2011, growing by 6.6 per cent per year (in nominal terms) to US $1789.2 billion (4.7 per cent) in...

Information, Communications Technologies, and Peace

Information, Communications Technologies, and Peace   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,809 words

...commercialization, the WWW has been remarkably successful in developing greater opportunities for communication access for the first billion end users, representing only about 20 percent of the world’s population. In terms of features, the WWW has been commonly referred to as “Web 2.0” since 2007 to signify important changes that occurred. Contents and services have matured from simple read-only static content produced only by the technically savvy to dynamic content that is often supplemented by or directly created by nontechnical users. Connected users now...

News Distribution

News Distribution   Reference library

Joshua A. Braun

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
8,442 words

...telecommunications . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Kim, Y.-C. , & Ball-Rokeach, S. J. (2006). Civic engagement from a communication infrastructure perspective. Communication Theory, 16 (2), 173–197. Kompare, D. (2010). Reruns 2.0: Revising repetition for multi-platform television distribution. Journal of Popular Film and Television, 38 (2), 79–83. Kosterich, A. , & Napoli, P. M. (2016). Reconfiguring the audience commodity: The institutionalization of social TV analytics as market information regime. Television and New Media, 17 , 254–271...

War

War   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
10,873 words

...on Early Origins. ] Table 1. The Relation between Belligerence 0–6 and Civilization, % Index level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total Social 92 71 57 46 42 35  5 53 Economic and political 0 11 22 39 45 57  95 33 SUM 92 82 79 85 87 82 100 86 The percentages do not add up to 100 because some were classified as purely defensive, and because of missing information. Table 2. The Top and Bottom Ten on the War Participation Index WPI top ten WPI bottom ten  1. United States of America .3040 59. Bulgaria .0154  2. Israel (1947–1985) .1842 60. Norway .0127  3. Ottoman Empire and...

Nongovernmental Organizations

Nongovernmental Organizations   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
7,998 words

...Manifesto, which called on scientists to discuss the threat of thermonuclear weapons, Pugwash brings together influential scholars and public figures from around the world, meeting in private, to explore arms control and other related issues. The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs and Joseph Rotblat, its president, received the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize. Pugwash continues its work. Another similar organization was the Dartmouth Conferences, which brought together Soviet and American participants from 1960 to 1990 for unofficial and...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
15,695 words

...Education, science, culture Meteorological, world Finance, international corporation Monetary fund, international Food and agriculture Postal union Health, world Reconstruction and development bank Industrial development Telecommunications, international Intellectual property, world Tourism, world Investment disputes, international settlement ECOSOC Functional Commissions (8) Crime prevention Science and technology for development Human rights Statistics Narcotic drugs Status of women Population Sustainable development ECOSOC, Other Bodies (2) Forests forum...

Accountability in Journalism

Accountability in Journalism   Reference library

Susanne Fengler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,945 words
Illustration(s):
1

...journalists. European Journal of Communication, 30 (3), 249–266. References Akpabio, E. , & Mosanoka, S. (2018). Failure of media self-regulation? Documenting stakeholders’ attitude to the Botswana Media Complaints/Appeals Committees. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 6 (2), 144–157. Alsius, S. , Rodríguez-Martínez, R. , & Mauri de los Rios, M. (2014). Little impact? Journalists’ perceptions of traditional instruments of media self-regulation. In S. Fengler , T. Eberwein , G. Mazzoleni , C. Porlezza , & S. Russ-Mohl (Eds.), Journalists...

The Influence of Teacher Education on Teacher Beliefs

The Influence of Teacher Education on Teacher Beliefs   Reference library

Maria Teresa Tatto

Oxford Encyclopedia of Global Perspectives on Teacher Education

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Education
Length:
8,784 words

... R 2 .43 .46 .53 .43 .55 .44 Intercept −0.68 −0.43 −0.65 −0.59 −0.29 −0.31 OTL Variables Foundations 0.05 −0.13 Instruction Class Participation 0.18 * Class Reading 0.08 −0.08 Solving Problems −0.15 −0.10 −0.15 −0.15 * 0.09 Instructional Practice 0.12 0.23 * 0.24 * Instructional Planning −0.15 −0.19 −0.21 * 0.40 * Assessment Uses −0.15 −0.15 −0.31 * Assessment Practice 0.20 * 0.29 * 0.41 * Social Science 0.06 ...

Science Journalism

Science Journalism   Reference library

Lars Guenther

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
12,282 words

...uncertainty in media content: Introduction to this special issue . Public Understanding of Science, 25 (8), 893–908. Peters, H. P. , Dunwoody, S. , Allgaier, J. , Lo, Y.-Y. , Brossard, D. (2014). Public communication of science 2.0. Is the communication of science via the “new media” online a genuine transformation or old wine in new bottles? EMBO Report, 15 (7), 479–753. Phillips, D. P. , Kanter, E. J. , Bednarczyk, B. , & Tastad, P. L. (1991). Importance of the lay press in the transmission of medical knowledge to the scientific community...

paradigm

paradigm   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
721 words

...Kuhn was himself a determined anti-relativist, many of his arguments pointed in a relativist direction, and his work was widely used by those whose main aim was to debunk the view of science as an especially authoritative form of knowledge and to see sociology as a ‘multiple paradigm’ science. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-1224(197912)44%3A6%3C925%3ATPCASA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-N A critical discussion of the use of the idea in sociology, by Douglas Lee Eckberg and Lester Hill: ‘The Paradigm Concept and Sociology: A Critical Review’....

Social Science on Religion and Nature

Social Science on Religion and Nature   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
4,827 words

...0.303 0.395 0.339 Partial 0.274 0.362 0.303 –All correlations significant at p < 0.001 –Partial correlations controlled for demographics (age, education, gender, income), political orientation, and theological fundamentalism Table 2. Linear Regression Results Environmental Self-Identification Environmental Issues Concern Proenvironmental Behavior Beta R 2 R 2 Total Beta R 2 R 2 Total Beta R 2 R 2 Total 1. Demographic Characteristics 0.016 0.023 0.020  Age 0.112** 0.128*** –  Education – – –  Gender – – −0.062*  Income 0.058* – – 2. Political Orientation 0...

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

The Effect of Education on Health and Mortality: A Review of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence   Reference library

Titus J. Galama, Adriana Lleras-Muney, and Hans van Kippersluis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Health Economics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
29,925 words
Illustration(s):
41

...d H = Mortality by 2007, hazard ratio (0.60/0.65) c E = Years of education (9.74/9.59) M/F 0.963 *** /0.951 *** {0.951–0.975}/{0.937–0.965} [Table 3, Column 3] M/F 0.948 *** /0.962 * {0.914–0.984}/{0.925–1.001} [Table 3, Column 4] van den Berg et al. (2012) e Danish Twin Registry Birth cohorts 1888–1897 N = 2,839/2,856 H = Mortality (0.62) E = Eligible for reform that expanded voluntary education (0.5/0.5) M/F –0.194 ** /–0.063 (0.086)/(0.080) [Table 11/12, Column 1] M/F –0.183 ** /–0.054 f (0.088)/(0.087) [Table 11/12, Column 3] Behrman et al....

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